1 Comparative Digestive Physiology

1 Comparative Digestive Physiology - ComparativeDigestive...

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Comparative Digestive  Physiology
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Why Do Animals Digest? Food not ingested in suitable state Physical nature of food determined by:                gathering apparatus for uptake               type of digestive system   
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Primary Functions of the  Digestive Tract   Transport food  – peristaltic contractions Digestion Mechanical breakdown Chemical breakdown Absorption Passive diffusion and active transport Synthesis  - true protein, FA, starch, vitamins Excretion  – elimination of waste products Via bile (toxins, microbes etc) Via rectum (Ca, Mg, P)
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Regions of Alimentary Canal Foregut functions Ingestion and storage of feeds Midgut functions feed Nutrient absorption  Hindgut functions Formation, storage, excretion of feces
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Associated Structures Pancreas Liver Gallbladder Salivary glands Contribute to small  intestinal digestion
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Primitive Gastrointestinal  Tract Found in monotremes (egg-laying mammals),  insectivores (bats, shrews, moles), and dermopterans  (colugos) Simple stomach, little or no division between small intestines  and large intestines, large intestine simple, presence of  cecum, non-sacculated colon
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Species-Dependent  Nutritional Adaptations Includes involvement of: Teeth Jaws and jaw musculature Alimentary canal  Stomach - May be simple or become sacculated to  compartmentalize functions for prolonged storage of feed  and utilization of bacterial fermentation (langurs and  ruminants) May also become voluminous for storage of large amounts  of feed (vampire bats) Large intestine - varies substantially in length,  compartmentalization, and complexity among species
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Ruminants 2.8 billion domesticated ruminants Cattle, sheep, deer, elk, bison Pregastric fermentation  Ability to chew cud at frequent intervals  distinguishes true ruminant from other foregut  fermenters  Kangaroo, colobine monkey are not true ruminants Four compartment stomach Reticulum Rumen Omasum Abomasum
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Ruminants vary in size and habitat
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Classification of Ruminants by  Feeding Preference Classes of ruminants Concentrate selectors Intermediate feeders Roughage grazers
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Concentrate Selecting Species Properties Evolved early Small rumens Poorly developed omasums Large livers Limited ability to digest fiber Classes Fruit and forage selectors Very selective feeders Duikers, sunis Tree and shrub browsers Eat highly lignified plant tissues to extract cell solubles Deer, giraffes, kudus
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This document was uploaded on 02/14/2012.

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1 Comparative Digestive Physiology - ComparativeDigestive...

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