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3 Metabolism of Carbohydrates

3 Metabolism of Carbohydrates - (ATP rechargeablebattery...

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Carbohydrate Metabolism
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An Overview of Metabolism
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Adenosine Tri-Phosphate (ATP) Link between energy releasing and  energy requiring mechanisms “rechargeable battery” ADP + P + Energy                ATP
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Mechanisms of ATP Formation Substrate-level phosphorylation Substrate transfers a phosphate group  directly Requires enzymes Phosphocreatine + ADP            Creatine + ATP Oxidative phosphorylation Method by which most ATP formed Small carbon chains transfer hydrogens to  transporter (NAD or FADH) which enters the  electron transport chain
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Metabolism is all the chemical reactions that occur  in an organism Cellular metabolism Cells  break down  excess carbohydrates first, then lipids,  finally amino acids if energy needs are not met by  carbohydrates and fat   Nutrients not used for energy are used to  build up   structure, are stored, or they are excreted 40% of the energy released in catabolism is captured in  ATP, the rest is released as heat Metabolism
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Performance of structural  maintenance and repairs Support of growth  Production of secretions Building of nutrient reserves Anabolism
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Breakdown of nutrients to provide  energy (in the form of ATP) for body  processes Nutrients directly absorbed Stored nutrients Catabolism
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Cells provide small organic  molecules to mitochondria Mitochondria produce ATP used  to perform cellular functions Cells and Mitochondria
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Metabolism of Carbohydrates
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Carbohydrate Metabolism Primarily glucose Fructose and galactose enter the pathways at  various points All cells can utilize glucose for energy  production Glucose uptake from blood to cells usually  mediated by insulin and transporters Liver is central site for carbohydrate  metabolism Glucose uptake independent of insulin The only exporter of glucose
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Blood Glucose Homeostasis Several cell types prefer glucose as  energy source (ex., CNS)  80-100 mg/dl is normal range of blood  glucose in non-ruminant animals  45-65 mg/dl is normal range of blood  glucose in ruminant animals   Uses of glucose:  Energy source for cells  Muscle glycogen  Fat synthesis if in excess of needs  
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Fates of Glucose Fed state Storage as glycogen Liver Skeletal muscle Storage as lipids Adipose tissue Fasted state Metabolized for energy New glucose synthesized Synthesis and  breakdown occur  at  all times   regardless of state...
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