3 Metabolism of Carbohydrates

3 Metabolism of Carbohydrates - Carbohydrate Metabolism An...

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Unformatted text preview: Carbohydrate Metabolism An Overview of Metabolism Adenosine Tri-Phosphate (ATP) Link between energy releasing and energy requiring mechanisms rechargeable battery ADP + P + Energy ATP Mechanisms of ATP Formation Substrate-level phosphorylation Substrate transfers a phosphate group directly Requires enzymes Phosphocreatine + ADP Creatine + ATP Oxidative phosphorylation Method by which most ATP formed Small carbon chains transfer hydrogens to transporter (NAD or FADH) which enters the electron transport chain Metabolism is all the chemical reactions that occur in an organism Cellular metabolism Cells break down excess carbohydrates first, then lipids, finally amino acids if energy needs are not met by carbohydrates and fat Nutrients not used for energy are used to build up structure, are stored, or they are excreted 40% of the energy released in catabolism is captured in ATP, the rest is released as heat Metabolism Performance of structural maintenance and repairs Support of growth Production of secretions Building of nutrient reserves Anabolism Breakdown of nutrients to provide energy (in the form of ATP) for body processes Nutrients directly absorbed Stored nutrients Catabolism Cells provide small organic molecules to mitochondria Mitochondria produce ATP used to perform cellular functions Cells and Mitochondria Metabolism of Carbohydrates Carbohydrate Metabolism Primarily glucose Fructose and galactose enter the pathways at various points All cells can utilize glucose for energy production Glucose uptake from blood to cells usually mediated by insulin and transporters Liver is central site for carbohydrate metabolism Glucose uptake independent of insulin The only exporter of glucose Blood Glucose Homeostasis Several cell types prefer glucose as energy source (ex., CNS) 80-100 mg/dl is normal range of blood glucose in non-ruminant animals 45-65 mg/dl is normal range of blood glucose in ruminant animals Uses of glucose: Energy source for cells Muscle glycogen Fat synthesis if in excess of needs Fates of Glucose Fed state Storage as glycogen Liver Skeletal muscle Storage as lipids Adipose tissue Fasted state Metabolized for energy New glucose synthesized Synthesis and breakdown occur at all times regardless of state......
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3 Metabolism of Carbohydrates - Carbohydrate Metabolism An...

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