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Draft ImmuneReceptors

Draft ImmuneReceptors - The Differentiation of Vertebrate...

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The Differentiation of Vertebrate Immune Cells In the immune system, two types of cells participate directly in defense against pathogens. Plasma B cells produce and secrete immunoglobulins (antibodies), and killer T cell produce membrane- bound proteins that act as receptors for various substances. B cell antibodies and T cell receptors bind to specific antigens. A cell must make many varieties of these proteins because there are many potential pathogens.
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An Antigen-Antibody Complex
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Structure of an Antibody Molecule
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Human Antibody Genes Two light chain loci: the κ on chromosome 2 and λ on chromosome 22 One heavy chain locus on chromosome 14. Each locus consists of a long array of gene segments.
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Gene Segments for a Kappa Polypeptide 1. An L κ V κ gene segment, encoding a leader peptide, which is removed later, and the N-terminal 95 amino acids of the variable region of the kappa light chain. (76 gene segments in humans; 40 of these are functional) 2. A J κ
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