Lecture16updated Biol302 Spring 2011

Lecture16updated Biol302 Spring 2011 - What does the word...

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What does the word Promoter mean? It is the place at which RNA Pol II binds. But the word is incorrectly used to describe Enhancers plus Promoter.
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Initiation by RNA Polymerase II
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TFIID recognition site is TATAA How often is this site found in the genome? 1/4 5 Once every 1000 nucleotides 10 9 nucleotides or 10 6 times
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More Cells But on a per cell Basis expression levels of β -gal is about the same Transient transfection
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Stable transfection
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Recruitment Model
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The 7-Methyl Guanosine (7-MG) Cap
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The 3’ Poly(A) Tail AATAAA
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Interrupted Genes in Eukaryotes: Exons and Introns Most eukaryotic genes contain noncoding sequences called introns that interrupt the coding sequences, or exons. The introns are excised from the RNA transcripts prior to their transport to the cytoplasm.
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Removal of Intron Sequences by RNA Splicing The noncoding introns are excised from gene transcripts by several different mechanisms.
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Excision of Intron Sequences
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Splicing Removal of introns must be very precise. Conserved sequences for removal of the introns of nuclear mRNA genes are minimal. Dinucleotide sequences at the 5’ and 3’ ends of introns. An A residue about 30 nucleotides upstream from the 3’ splice site is needed for lariat formation.
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Types of Intron Excision The introns of tRNA precursors are excised by precise endonucleolytic cleavage and ligation reactions catalyzed by special splicing endonuclease and ligase activities. The introns of nuclear pre-mRNA (hnRNA) transcripts are spliced out in two-step reactions carried out by spliceosomes.
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The Spliceosome Five snRNAs: U1, U2, U4, U5, and U6 Some snRNAs associate with proteins to form snRNAs (small nuclear ribonucleoproteins)
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What are Logo plots?
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Logo for a) Splice acceptor b) Splice Donor c) Initiator Met
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AG/GT AG/GT CAG/NT CAG/NT exon 1 intron 1 exon 2 exon 1 intron 1 exon 2
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Chapter 12 Translation and the Genetic Code
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Protein Structure Proteins are complex macromolecules composed of 20 (?) different amino acids .
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Amino Acids Proteins are made of polypeptides. A polypeptide is a long chain of amino acids. Amino acids have a free amino group, a free carboxyl group, and a side group (R).
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Amino acids are joined by peptide bonds. The carboxyl group of one amino acid is
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This note was uploaded on 02/14/2012 for the course BIO 302 taught by Professor Feinstein during the Spring '11 term at Iowa State.

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Lecture16updated Biol302 Spring 2011 - What does the word...

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