Final review sheet 1006 (complete)

Final review sheet 1006 (complete) - ANTH 1006, FALL 2011...

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ANTH 1006, FALL 2011 REVIEW SHEET: FINAL EXAM Method and Theory in Cultural Anthropology 1. List and describe three types of research methods/data collection strategies used by cultural anthropologists. a. Research : a.i. Emic : description reports about what insiders say and understand about their culture a.ii. Etic : data gathering by outsiders that will yield answers to particular questions posed by the outsider Survey a.iii. Hawthorne Effect : Participation over a long period of time improves data a.iv. Qualitative : being the folklore, oral history and myths past down through generations a.v. Quantitative : unstructured and semi-structured interviews, and surveys b. Data collection : b.i. Genealogical method : identify all-important links of kinship determined by marriage and descent, where the links commonly plays a crucial role in the structure of non-industrial societies, determining both social relations and group relationship to the past. b.ii. Key Informants : b.iii. Life history interviews : 2. Describe three tenets of the AAA code of ethics. Why are ethics challenging in cultural anthropology? a. Codes : a.i. Be open and honest a.ii. Reveal purpose and impact of research a.iii. Obtain “informed consent” a.iv. Act appropriately b. Problems : b.i. Ethics are cultural: based on morals, norms, values, beliefs b.ii. Issues with informed consent: trust issues b.iii. Vulnerable populations b.iv. Representation 3. Choose three of the following anthropological theories. Describe them and their contributions to the field. [Historical Particularism, British Functionalism, Structural Functionalism, Materialism, Political Economy, Symbolic Anthropology, Human Behavioral Ecology, Postmodernism] a. Historical Particularism : a.i. Each society is a collective representation of its unique historical past a.ii. Showed that societies could reach the same level of cultural development through different paths a.iii. Franz Boas: father of American anthropology, rejected the idea that all societies are on the same path and have reached their specific level of development the same way all other societies have. a.iv. Suggested diffusion, trade, corresponding environment, and historical accident may create similar cultural traits b. British Functionalism: b.i. Malinowski: culture functions to fulfill basic human needs b.ii. Emphasized the importance of detailed participant observation and must have daily contact with their informants if they are to adequately record, to understand a different culture . b.iii. Flaws : doesn’t explain cultural variation b.iv. Relates cultural features to the well-being of society and/or society c. Structural Functionalism: c.i. A.R. Radcliffe-Brown : all behaviors and institutions function to prevent society from extinction; living organism c.ii. Flaws : doesn’t explain cultural changes c.iii. Answers how society sustains itself d. Materialism: d.i. Technology: instruments and knowledge d.ii. How humans harness life sustain energy and materials from the environment has the most important
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Final review sheet 1006 (complete) - ANTH 1006, FALL 2011...

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