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Unformatted text preview: JHIIIIIIIIIHHII nu HJLY The International Magazine of the Arts COVER PLATE Bracelet with rock crystal hoop and gold rams’ heads, 330—300 BC One of a pair said to be from Thessaloniki“ 7‘8 x 8 cm Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, 37:11 11—12 Harry Brisbane Dick Fund, 1937 29 Chesham Place, London SW1X 8H3 Tel: 071—235 1998 Fax: 071—235 1689 Tel: 071—235 1676 Fax: 071—235 1673 (Editorial) APOLLO is available at: Thomas Heneage & Co. Ltd, 42 Duke Street, St Iames’s, London, SW1Y 6D] USA Advertising Director Valerie Allan PO Box 47, North Hollywood, Ca, 91603-0047, USA Tel: (818) 763—7673 Fax: (818) 753—9492 American Postal Subscriptions Collecting Ofiice PO Box 47, North Hollywood, Ca. 91603-0047, USA Single Copy price: £780: $13 90 Us Annual subscription (12 issues including p&p)i 3K £10 Overseas £75 (surface) CSA and South America $125 (air—speeded delivery) anada £79 (air—speeded delivery) Vol. CYL No 389 w ‘ y ' 1 (Ne Series) ul 1994 F ' “P0110 Magazine Ltd: 1994, ISSN 0003—6356 APOLLO 1994 ESI‘ABL ISHED 1925 3 Euundria, kulos kagathos and the Chippendales: The cult of beauty in Classical Greece Nigel Spivey 6 The language of gesture in Greek art: Gender and status on grave stelai Glenys Davies 12 Aspasia as heroine and lover: Images of women in the High Classical period Wolfram Martini 18 Rome as palimpsest: The city in architecture and the imagination John Elsner 23 Dante Gabriel Rossetti and photography: Some newly-rediscovered correspondence Alicia Craig Faxon 28 The stone ghost: Two Russians in Enlightenment Paris Johanna Hecht 36 The Queen and the painters: Anne Boleyn, Holbein and Tudor royal portraits E. W” Ives 46 ACQUISITION IN FOCUS The Home Hoard Roger Bland EXHIBITION REVIEWS 48 Greek gold at the British Museum John Boardrnan 51 Royal residences of the Victorian era Andrew Sanders 53 The Romantic art of Theodor von Holst Brian Allen , 54 Demidoff at The Wallace Robert Oresko 55 Renaissance portrait medals in New York Joanna Woods-Marsden 59 BOOK REVIEWS Roman Sculpture Susan E” Kane 62 LETTERS TO THE EDITOR 63 ROUND THE GALLERIES 64 ROUND THE AUCTION HOUSES 66 DIARY The August issue focuses on the latest research into the building and furnishing of The 5 Apartments at Hampton Court Palace MAGAZINE LTD —— A Chairman and Publisher Paul Z losefowitz Managing Director Peter Flexner Editor Robin Simon Assistant Editor Polly Chiapetta Editorial Assistant Rebecca Cassidy Associate Publisher and Director of Advertising Anthony Law Advertisement Manager Nigel McKinley Advertisement Assistant Sarah Legg Production David Dawson David N Hodgson Accounting Services Nicky Fry Subscriptions Manager Leigh Bridges Editorial Advisory Panel Dr Brian Allen Rosalind Savill Dr Rosa Maria Letts Christopher Lloyd J.V.G. Mallet Joachim Pissarro Dr Jessica Rawson The members of the advisory panel are available to advise the editor, but are not responsible for the content of the magazine Contributors Brian Allen is Director of the Paul Mellon Centre for Studies in British Art He writes mainly on eighteenth» century British painting, has published a book on Francis Hay-man and is currently working on a catalogue raisonné of Hogarth’s paintings and drawings Roger Bland has worked in the Department of Coins and Medals at the British Museum since 1979 and is currently Curator of Roman Coins and Treasure Trove liaison officer; he is also Secretary of the Royal Numismatic Society His publications include The Cunetio Treasure (with E M Besley, 1983), the Norman- by Hoard and other Roman coin hoards (editor and contributor, with A‘ M Burnett, 1988) and the Chalfont Hoard and other Roman coin hoards (editor and contrib- utor, 1993)‘ Sir John Boardman is Lincoln Professor of Classical Archaeology and Art at Oxford University His forth- coming book is The Difi‘usion of Classical Art in Antiquity (Princeton University Press/Thames and Hudson) Glenys Davies is Senior Lecturer in Classical Architec— ture in the Classics department of the University of Edinburgh She has published various articles on Roman funerary art and is currently compiling a catalogue of the Roman ash chests in the lnce—Blundell Collection, Liverpool She has also catalogued the Albacini collec— tion of casts of classical portraits in the National Gallery of Scotland in Edinburgh and edited the volume Plaster and Marble: The Classical and Nee-Classical Portrait Bust for the journal The History of Collecting (1991) ‘ Alicia Craig Faxon is Professor of Art History Emeritus from Simmons College, Boston, and author of Dante Gabriel Rossetti published in New York and Boston in 1989 and due to be re-issued in autumn 1994 She has published articles on Rossetti and photography in History of Photography and Visual Resources John Elsner is Lecturer in Classical and Early Christian Art at the Courtauld Institute His recent publications include the edited volumes Reflections ‘ofNero and The Cultures of Collecting (both 1994), and his monograph Art and the Roman Viewer: The Transformation ofArt from the Pagan World to Christianity is due to be published this autumn Eric Ives studied at the Universities of London and Yale and is Professor of English History and Head of the Department of Modern History at the University of Birmingham His initial research was in early«modern English legal history but he now writes and broadcasts on politics and court culture in the reigns of Henry V111 and Edward VI He is best known for his biography of Anne Boleyn Susan E“ Kane is Associate Professor and Chair of the Department of Art, Oberlin College A classical archae— ologist, she has published studies on Greek and Roman sculpture from the Sanctuary of Demeter and Perse— phone in Cyrene, Libya and articles on ancient marble trade Wolfram Martini is professor of Classical Archaeology at the University of Giessen‘ His latest books are Die archdische Plastik der Griechen (The Archaic Sculpture of the Greeks), 1990, and Das Gymnasium van Samos Das friibyzantinische Klostergut (The Samos Gymnasium Early Byzantine Monastic Property), 1993 He is particu- larly interested in the Archaic period Robert Oresko is Research Fellow at the Institute of Historical Research at the University of London and co~ editor of Cambridge Studies in Italian History and Culture He is jointly editing with Mark Jones the con- tinuation of the catalogues of French medals in the British Museum Andrew Sanders is Reader in Modern English Litera‘ ture at Birkbeck College, University of London He has recently published a history of English literature (Oxford University Press, 1994) Nigel Spivey is a lecturer at the Faculty of Classics, Cambridge, and a Fellow of Emmanuel College His most recent publication is Looking at Greek Vases (Cam— bridge, 1991) which he co-edited with Tom Rasmussen Rome as palimpsest The city in architecture and the imagination After I had spent some time admiring this stun- ningly picturesque sight, I thanked God, mighty throughout the entire World, who had here ren- dered the works of man wondrously and indescribany beautiful For although all of Rome lies in ruins, nothing intact can be compared to this Master Gregorius (AD thirteenth century), Narmcio de Mimln‘libus Urbis Romae, chapter 1 ‘1 ome is the quintessential city of western culture The experience of the city is a physical and Visual embodiment of the complex cultural palimpsest into which Europeans have been born Over the breadth of Europe, from the Black Sea to the Straits of Gibraltar, from Hadrian’s Wall to the Greek islands, culture is built up from strata of ancient history Our languages conflate Classical Latin and Greek with the vulgate and the invader and bar— barian tongues (English being one of the most peculiar and interesting mixes with its characteristic blend of Latin, Anglo «Saxon and French) European local customs like- wise r‘epresent a strange combination of pagan and Christian, indigenous and imported traditions which have grown together over millenia to produce that spe- cial phenomenon called a cultural identity But it is the city of Rome which embodies most concretely these strands in European experience by its extraordinary architectural palimpsest of ancient, medieval, renaissance and baroque elements jumbled together, often in a single building” While in most of Europe the palirnpsest of our past can only be felt, in Rome it can be seen And while in most of Europe the historicity of a cultural identity can only be experienced, in Rome — as early as late Antiquity — it could be per— ceived and explored through the ancient buildings This quality has many reverberafions‘ It gives the visitor to Rome a rare sense of walking through living history But it also serves as a potent metaphor for a whole’: archaeology of personal experience Consid— er for instance the effect of Rome on the imagination of Sigmund Freud ’Let us, by a flight of imagination,’ he wrote in Civiliza— tion and Its Discmztemfs,2 suppose that Rome is not a human habitation but a physical entity with a similarly long and copious 18 JOHN ELSNER 1 The Porficus Octaviae, Rome, from the south west, This monumental entrance, restored in AD 203 by Septimius Severus, was exposed after houses in the Ghetto were pulled down in 1878‘ Photograph: Conway Library, Courtauld Institute ‘ 7: past ~— an entity, that is to say, in which nothing that has once come into existence will have passed away and all the earlier phases of develop— ment continue to exist alongside the latest one This would mean that in Rome the palaces of the Caesars and the Septizonum of Septimius Severus would still be rising to their old height on the Palatinate and that the castle of S Angelo would still be carrying on its battlements the beautiful statues which graced it until the siege by the Goths, and so on But more than this In the place occupied by the Palazzo Caffarelli would once more stand — without the Palazzo having to be removed — the Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus; and this not only in its latest shape, as the Romans of the Empire saw it, but also in its earliest one, when it still showed Etruscan forms and was ornamented with terracotta antefixes‘ Where the Colisseurn now stands we could at the same time admire Nero’s vanished Golden House On the Piazza of the Pantheon we should find not only the Pantheon of to—day, as it was bequeathed to us by Hadrian, but, on the same site, the original edifice erected by Agrippa; indeed, the same piece of ground would be supporting the church of Santa Maria sopra Minerva and the ancient tem— ple over which it was built For Freud, Rome the palimpsestual city as a metaphor and a ’phantasy’ becomes an image for the psychic life of the human mind Let us take an instance not mentioned by Freud Imagine standing in the Portico d’Ottavia (Figs 1, 2), a street originally built by Quintus Metellus in the southern part of the Campus Martius in 147 BC It was rebuilt by the emperor Augustus some twenty—five years before the birth of Christ Even today one is in the midst of an ancient quarter — with columns and shops from the Augustan rebuilding still lining the street Looking towards the Capitol (surmounted by the Palazzo Caffarelli and, in Freud’s imagina— tion, the Temple of Capitoline love) are the remains of other great Augustan construc- tions — the Theatre of Marcellus, the Temples of Bellona, Juno and Apollo Sosianus‘ Characteristically, the ruins of the Theatre of Marcellus form part of a modern apartment block (Fig 3)‘ The medieval church of S Angelo in Pescheria was built into the Portico’s Roman ruins and owes its name to the fact that this area was the fish market in the Middle Ages The Portico d’Ottavia itself, which has been for centuries the heart of Rome’s Jew- ish quarter, consists of ancient buildings bearing classical inscriptions in Latin and Greek which can be read to this day Its houses have been patched and peeled since medieval times with disparate fragments of antique sculpture and perpetually replas— ter‘ed through later years (Fig, 2), One memorable two—foot square of wall boasts ancient inscriptions in Latin and Greek as well as more recent ones in Hebrew and Italian In Imperial times the Portico d’Ottavia was crammed with ancient statu— ary brought as booty from Greece Pliny the Elder, the encyclopaedist killed in the erup— tion of Vesuvius in AD 79, reports that statues by famous Greek sculptors Praxite— les, his son Cephisodotus, Philiscus of Rhodes and other artists were displayed there, as well as an ’exceptionally beautiful Venus’ by Phidias himself3 The Portico, even as it bears today the memorials of its ancient origins, was (in its Roman heyday) the storehouse for a display of the Greek past, Rome was the archetypal palimpsest even in Roman times, crammed with the booty of the Greek culture on the founda— 2 The Porticus Octaviae, Rome, in the early twentieth century View of shops in the Ghetto built into Augustan buildings with a grand Latin inscription and fragments of antique sculpture Photograph: Conway Library, Courtauld Institute 3 The Theatre of Marcellus in the Campus Martins, Rome View of the ancient buildings adapted into modern apartments Photograph: Silvia Frenk tions of which Roman civilization was built Just as the modern tourist may com— plain, assaulted by the sheer quantity of Rome’s ancient, medieval and renaissance splendours, that one cannot find time to do the city justice — so, in the first century AD, Pliny complained: At Rome, the great number of works of art and again their consequent effacement from our memory, and, even more, the multitude of official functions and business activities must, after all, deter anyone from serious study, since the appre- ciation involved needs leisure and deep silence in our surroundings ‘ Even where one cannot see the ancient ruins embedded into more recent walls, one finds 19 4 The Pantheon and the Piazza della Rotonda, Rome, in the nineteenth century. Originally erected by Agrippa in c 27 BC and rebuilt by Hadrian in the AD 1205, the Pantheon is seen here in a view taken prior to 1883 when the twin bell towers erected by Bernini at the behest of Pope Urban VIII were removed the topography of Rome contorting itself to accommodate its ancient past, The shape of the famous Piazza Navona, distinguished for its baroque monuments by Bernini and Borromini, still traces the contours of Domitian’s Stadium, while the great roads, such as the Via Flaminia and the Via Appia, continue to follow their ancient paths, But most impressive for the modern visitor is the way the still standing ancient monuments blend into their present, The massive bulk of the Pantheon (Fig, 4), surely the most remarkable building in Rome and erected in its current form under the Emperor Hadrian in the second century AD, hardly towers above the apartment buildings which sur- round it‘ Its passage fiom imperial temple to church to museum is almost belied by the informality of the pleasant Piazza della Rotonda in front of it It is strange that Rome, historically the capital of the foreign conqueror — whether 20 the universal Roman empire or the universal Roman Church — should so embody this quality of the symbiosis of conqueror and conquered, old and new, imported and indigenous This is in part a legacy of the imperial days, when the possessions of empire — such as statues from Greece and obelisks from Egypt -— were imported from the far-flung provinces to parade the glory of Rome, Most of the obelisks which now grace so many of the squares and fountains of the city arrived in this way in imperial times. The obelisk surmounting the renais— sance fountain in the Piazza della Rotonda, for instance, was originally carved in com— memoration of the Pharoah Rameses H (Fig, 4), But, crucially, the endurance of the visual palimpsest owes its existence to medieval taste Medieval Rome saw not a breaking with the past, not a rejection of the pagan splendours that had been, but rather a cre— ative re—use of fragments, column bases and buildings, Most of the ancient edifices that survive intact do so because they became churches But conversely most of the later churches are themselves a mosaic of ancient capitals, columns and inscriptions (often cemented into the walls of the porch): S Giorgio in Velabro, a quiet seventh—century church, has the third—century marble Arch of the Argentarii built into its porch (Fig 5)” Something of this medieval creative respect for the classical past can be caught in the guide books to the city produced in the Middle Ages — such as the Mirabilia Urbis Ronnie,5 probably written by Benedict, a canon of St Peter’s in about 1140; the con— temporary Gmphia Aureae Urbis Romae;6 and Master Gregor’ius’s thirteenth—century account, the Namzcio de Mirubilibus Urbis Romney The Mirubz'liu concludes its three sec-- tions which stitch together narratives and monuments of pagan and Christian Rome with the following passage: These and more temples and palaces of emperors, consuls, senators and prefects were inside this Roman city in the time of the Heathen, as we have read in old chronicles, have seen with our own eyes, and have heard the ancient men tell of t In writing we have tried as well as we could to bring back to the human memory how great was their beauty in gold, silver, brass, ivory and pre— cious stones 7 This tWelfth—century account by a native of Rome finds the medieval imagination reliving and reviving the memories and nar— ratives so vividly evoked by the city’ 5 still standing monuments By contrast, the Nmmcio was probably written by a visitor to the city, an English pilgrim of the thirteenth century“ This brief account is remarkable for its single—minded interest in ancient Rome — in pre-Christian antiquities and monuments Unlike the author of the Mirabilia, Gregorius does not interweave his account of antique things with narratives of Constantine, the martyrs and the passions of the saints His is a more moralizing slant, focused on the passing of earthly glories Quoting these lines from the twelfth—century poet Hildebert of Lavardin: Rome though you are almost a total ruin, you have no equal: Shattered you can teach us, whole how greatly you would speak Gregorius comments: I believe this ruin teaches us clearly that all tem— poral things soon pass away, especially as Rome, the epitome of earthly glory, languishes and declines so much every day" The vogue for ancient ruins in the high Mid— dle Ages (whether so didactically motivated as Gregorius implies or perhaps more straightforwardly acquisitive and aesthetic in inclination) led Henry of Blois, Bishop of Winchester and brother of King Stephen, to collect antiquities in Rome in the mid— twelfth century and transport them home to England, according to his biographer John of Salisbury? By 1167, the Roman Senate passed a decree imposing stiff penalties on those who damaged more conspicuous monuments such as Trajan’s Column” Beneath these tales of splendour, acqui— sition and decline, lies a pervasive sense of Wonder at the spectacle of what the past had achieved This awe at the monuments of Rome was itself implicated in the sense that they were part of the heritage, the cultural history and identity, of the Christian inhabi— tant or visitor to Rome” It has never been better captured than by Ammianus Marcelli- nus, the great fourth—century historian of the house of Constantine, wrih'ng at the dawn of the Middle Ages, Describing the entry into Rome of Constantine’s son, Constantius, 5 The Arch of the Argentarii, Rome, erected in AD 204 and dedicated to Sepiirnius Severus This nine— teenth—century view shows the Arch prior to the erection of fencing around it The Arch is attached to the seventh—century Church of S Giorgio in Velabro and was damaged by terrorist bombs in 1993 Ammianus writes: He stood amazed; and on every side on which his eyes rested he was dazzled by the array of marvel- lous sights As he surveyed the sections of the city and its suburbs ‘ he thought that whatever met his gaze first towered over all the rest: the sanctuaries of Tarpeian love so far surpassing as things divine excel those of the earth; the baths built up to the measure of provinces; the huge bulk of the amphitheatre, strengthened by its framework of Tiburtine stone, to whose top human eyesight barely ascends; the Pantheon like a rounded city district, vaulted over in lofty beau— ty; and the exalted heights which rise with platforms to which one may mount, and bear the likenesses of emperors; the Temple of the city, the Forum of Peace, the Theatre of Pompey, the Odeum, the Stadium, and amongst these the other adornments of the Eternal City But when he came to the Forum of Trajan, a construction unique under the heavens, as we believe, and admirable even in the unanimous opinion of all the gods, he stood fast in his amazement, turning his attention to the gigantic complex about him, beggaring description and never again to be imi— tated by mortal men 3" In this magnificent evocation of human awe, one is struck by the repeated insistence on size But still more astounding, when one reflects that this description dates from the earliest years of late Antiquity, is how many of Ammianus’ wonders have survived The 21 6 Trajan’s Forum, Rome, dedicated in AD 112 In front of Trajan’s Column (beneath which the emperor was buried) are the remains of the columns of the Basilica Ulpr'a, the Forum’s main building Photograph: Conway Libr ary, Courtauld Institute 7 The Arch of Constantine from the south Completed in AD 315 to celebrate Constantine’s victory over Maxentius in 312, the Arch stands in front of the Colosseum, to the right Photograph: Silvia Frenk amphitheatre is the Colosseum, the ’exalted heights’ carrying imperial likenesses and platforms to which one could ascend are the columns of Trajan and Marcus Aurelius, the Stadium is the Piazza Navona‘ The Pan- theon is still like ’a rounded city district’ and Trajan’s forum, with its impressive markets, still remains (Fig. 6)‘ The feeling of wonder at the splendours of a past made distant (despite its relative proximity to Ammianus) by the theme of its inimitable grandeur, cou— pled with the experience of the city as a palimpsest, is ancestor to that peculiar quali- ty of medieval art whereby ancient objects or 22 spolia would be included within modern cre- ations, fusing past and present styles in a typically medieval conflation Examples of such syncretistic mixtures include the great tenth~century Cross of Lothar H of Lorraine, now in Aachen Cathedral, with its cameo of Augustus at the point of the crossing The ancestor of such syncretisms is the famous Arch of Constantine itself (Fig 7) — the paragon of Rome’s ancient ruins (standing by the entrance to the ancient Forum) and the butt of abuse about the decline of classical art into the depths of medieval darkness by such apologists of the Renaissance and the Enlightenment as Raphael, Giorgio Vasari, Edward Gibbon and Bernard Berenson‘ The Arch of Constantine is one of the great palimpsests of the world Its classiciz— ing form combines sculpted reliefs from the time of Constantine (AD fourth century) with carved panels from the reigns of Trajan, Hadrian and Marcus Aurelius in the second century In the cases of the reliefs of Marcus, the head of the emperor has been recut to resemble that of Constantine” Many have looked at the difference in style between the second— and fourthvcentury carvings, and concluded that skill had come to an end, that the artists had fled or become incompe— tent, that the Dark Ages were already at hand” But in many ways the Arch is a remarkably prophetic testimony to how the Middle Ages would come to regard their past The Arch of Constantine places the emperor in whose honour it was dedicated in a great tradition of emperors on whose past greatness his present stature is seen to rest and to build, The Arch argues Visually — through its syncretistic conflation of dis-- parate elements — for a whole politics of the present seen through the evocation of the past, just as Holy Roman emperors and other monarchs later affirmed their continu— ity with Classical Rome (for example in the ivory coronation seat decorated with scenes of Hercules used to enthrone the Carolin~ gian emperors in the Vatican), and the papacy took unto itself the ancient imperial title of Ponfiff (pontzfex maximus) oday, the ruins of ancient Rome are the Tsite of a further, social, palimpsest v a counterpart to the aesthetic The Arch of Constantine is one of Rome’s most celebrated monuments: on a sunny morning you can see bridal parties drive up in white Mercedes for the necessary photographs that place the newly—weds in the centre of their heritage As one sits by the Arch of Constantine, a famous architectural palimpsest in its own right, it seems somehow appropriate that all the city’s worlds -— its petty crime, its visitors, its locals at the rite of passage of marriage — should converge there amidst the ruins 1 Text ed‘ R B‘C Huygens, Leiden, 1970, and translated by It Osborne as The Marvels of Rome, Toronto, 1987 1 St Freud, Civilization and Its Discontents, London, 1961, Standard Edition )00, pp. 70—1 On Freud’s visualization of Rome, see Pi Jacks, The Antiquarian and the Myth of Antiquity, Cambridge, 1993, pp 1~2 and J Forrester, “’Mil’ e Tre”: Freud and Collecting’ pp 224—51 in It Elsner and] Cardinal, eds The Cultures of Collecting, London, 1994, esp» pp 224-6 ’ See Pliny, Natural Histmy, Book 36, chapters 15, 24, 28 and 35 4 Ibid , chapter 27. 5 Text in R Valentini and G Zucchetti, Codiee Topografi~ ca della Citta di Roma, Rome, 1940—53, vol 111, pp 3-65, and translated by F M‘ Nichols as The Marvels ofRome, New York, 1986, ‘ Textin Valentini and Zucchetti, op cit vol 1]], pp 67~110‘ 7Mirabilia, 3 17‘ “Navarro, 1 9 John of Salisbury, Historia Pontificalis, R Poole, ed, Oxford, 1921, pt 81 m Ammianus Marcellinus, Res Gestae 16 10 13f ...
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