essay 2 - Shuo Zhao Group 1-1 Paper Number Two In chapter...

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Shuo Zhao Group 1-1 Paper Number Two In chapter three Hardening the Boundaries of the Nation 1917-1929 , Gary Gerstle continue to argue how racial and civic nationalism shaped American history in a period of time between the time that New Nationalism was breaking down and the time that New Deal appeared. Through the immigration restriction act, racial nationalism achieved a major triumph (126). In the 1920s, the New Nationalism was aborted. American government did not have as much interventions as in 1910s and 1930s. The liberal civic nation gradually became racial nation. The war and its aftermath saw a severe widening of the racial nation, which was contradicted to the civic nation for immigrants, who could be associated with radical politics. In addition, social and political degenerates and those “who continued to engage in un- American behavior” were excluded and unwanted in racialized system of immigration restriction (91). Southern and Eastern Europeans were excluded, because many American didn’t want “stigmatized people from these regions as dangerously radical and as inferior to the ‘races’ of northern and western Europe” who were depicted as gift with intelligence, character, and capacity for self-government (94); Italians were not welcomed because they are antichrist; Germans were excluded because they were believed to threat to national unity; Jews were excluded because they were depicted as radicals, parasitic who spreaded disease and disorder, and had fearful intelligence; Japanese were unwelcomed, because they had the different skin color from American, too strong to threat American and could be neither assimilated nor made subservient; African Americans were the invisible race and they were
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essay 2 - Shuo Zhao Group 1-1 Paper Number Two In chapter...

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