Chapter 1 - Scientific Method Notes

Chapter 1 - Scientific Method Notes - SCIENTIFIC METHOD

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SCIENTIFIC METHOD Systematic approach for discovering knowledge about the natural world based in making falsifiable predictions (hypotheses), testing them empirically, and developing peer-reviewed theories  that best explain the known data OBSERVATIONS of phenomena in the natural world lead to questions ASK A QUESTION  •  Based on observations and information gained through previous research or knowledge •  Must be well defined, measurable, and controllable       EX: Why is grass green? What is the cause of AIDS?            Why does skin wrinkle with age?  MAKE HYPOTHESIS speculative guess that has yet to be tested  about how things work PREDICTION • Statement of the expected results of the experiment based on the hypothesis.  • The prediction is often an " if/then statement."       EX:  If increasing fertilizer increases number of beans,  then  coffee bean          plants treated with more fertilizer will have more beans. • Experiments are designed to  FALSIFY  the hypothesis       If predictions are confirmed, the scientist has supported the hypothesis.        If the predictions are not supported, the hypothesis is falsified.  • A hypothesis is never accepted as absolute truth. • Future investigations may falsify the hypothesis TEST WITH AN EXPERIMENT VARIABLES   -  contrasts an “experimental group” with a “control group” - to study the effect of one particular independent variable,  other factors affecting the outcome must be eliminated   •  DEPENDENT VARIABLE - is what will be measured         what the investigator thinks will be affected during the experiment 
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Chapter 1 - Scientific Method Notes - SCIENTIFIC METHOD

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