Chapter 2 - Basic Chemistry Notes

Chapter 2 - Basic Chemistry Notes - HEMISTRYChapter C 2 (...

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CHEMISTRY-Chapter      2    MATTER anything that takes up space and has mass Made of ELEMENTS -can’t be broken down to other substances by chemical reactions     • 92 naturally occurring elements       •  Each has a unique symbol (usually first one or two letters of name)        • Some symbols dervived from Latin   EX: Sodium = Na  (from Latin natrium)         • 25 chemical elements are essential to life.         • Four elements—carbon (C), oxygen (O), hydrogen (H), and nitrogen (N) = 96% of living matter   • Other 4% of organism’s weight = phosphorus (P), sulfur (S), calcium (Ca), and potassium (K) • TRACE elements =required in minute quantities Some required by all organisms EX: iron (Fe) Others only required by some species          EX: humans need 0.15 mg Iodine (I) daily for normal thyroid gland function ATOMS made of SUBATOMIC PARTICLES Each kind of atom has a specific number of protons, neutrons, and electrons Elements in same row have same # of electrons in their outer shells • As move from left to right, one proton & one electron are        added to preceding element • Atoms are electrically NEUTRAL (protons =electrons) • Atoms that have gained or lost electrons = IONS = number of protons          = number of protons + neutrons             ATOMIC MASS (1  dalton = 1 amu)  SUBATOMIC PARTICLE Electric  charge Mass Location Proton + 1 dalton In nucleus Neutron _ 1 dalton In nucleus Electron 0 negligible Orbit nucleus in energy levels USES OF RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES  : Determine age of fossils (carbon dating) Medical diagnostic and treatment procedures  Research
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Elements occur in nature as a mixture of ISOTOPES  ISOTOPES = atoms with the same number of protons     but differ in number of neutrons  EX:  14 C ,  13 C, and  12 
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