Chapter 3 - Water Notes

Chapter 3 - Water Notes - CHAPTER 3- Water Unique...

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CHAPTER 3- Water Unique Properties of Water Necessary for Living Organisms Water  facts:  3/4 of earth  is water  98%  of water  is in liquid  form  Makes  up  50- 95%  of the  weight  of any  living  things   Water = only common substance in the natural environment that exist in all of the three states of matter -  Water molecule = NEUTRAL in charge and POLAR COVALENT COVALENT  bonds between hydrogen and oxygen atoms result in uneven sharing of electrons    (hydrogen atoms are slightly positive/oxygen area is slightly negative) making molecule POLAR POLAR  – molecule has an uneven pattern of electric charge      • Results in hydrogen bonding between water molecules       • Polarity contributes to emergent properties of water HYDROGEN BONDS  can form between any hydrogen atom that is covalently bonded to an atom that has a strong attraction for electrons    • Each water molecule can form a max. of 4 hydrogen bonds with 4 other water molecules      • Single hydrogen bond is weaker than single covalent/ionic bond    • Groups of hydrogen bonds are very strong    • Responsible for the many EMERGENT PROPERTIES of water WATER IS “UNIVERSAL” SOLVENT-   “like dissolves like”   • Provides a medium in which other molecules can interact • Separates ionic substances into ions • Dissolves many other polar substances   • SOLUTION: uniform mixture of molecules of 2 or more substances • SOLVENT: substance present in greatest amount • SOLUTE: substance present in lesser amounts       (EX: Water = solvent; Koolaid powder/sugar = solutes; Kool-aid = solution) HYDROPHILIC  = “water loving” molecules- polar molecules that dissolve in water   Ex; sugars; DNA; proteins HYDROPHOBIC  = “water fearing” molecules- nonpolar molecules that cluster in water  Ex:  fats;  Hydrophobic exclusion = “oil and water don’t mix”     • Forces nonpolar molecules to associate together   EX: phospholipids form bilayers for cell membranes
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Chapter 3 - Water Notes - CHAPTER 3- Water Unique...

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