Chapter 5 - Macromolecules Notes

Chapter 5 - Macromolecules Notes - (CARBOHYDRATES =...

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CHAPTER 5- MACROMOLECULES  (CARBOHYDRATES) = sugars and their polymers  FUNCTIONS:         Energetic fuel source/storage        Structural building blocks  MONOSACCHARIDES • C, H, O in 1:2:1 ratio (CH 2 O ) n • 3-7 carbons • Pentoses (5C) & hexoses (6C) most common;                   but glycerol (3C) also important  • OH attached to each carbon except one • Major nutrient for cells • names often end with - ose . • Aldehydes (=O at end) form OR ketones (=O in middle)                       All = (C 6 H 12 O 6 Straight chains form rings in water (Cyclization) C 1  attaches to oxygen on C 5   Ketose form makes a 5-membered ring         Aldose form makes a 6-membered ring  Sugar rings = planar (-H and –OH groups below and above the plane of  the ring) 2 isomers of glucose ring differ in OH group on C 1     OH below ring=   glucose  α     OH above ring=   glucose β In solution, glucose changes          back and forth between forms DISACCHARIDES: 2 monosaccharides joined together by a condensation  (dehydration synthesis) reaction = GLYCOSIDIC linkage (covalent) • Sucrose = glucose + fructose 
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OH HO 1-6 linkage 1-4 linkage • Maltose = glucose + glucose  • Lactose = glucose + galactose                                       POLYSACCHARIDES                                                                                   • long polymers of monosaccharides (few 100-few 1000)                                     • formed by condensation dehydration synthesis) reactions                                     • Numbers identify the linked carbons and form of glucose      STARCH  -  energy storage in plants (EX: potatoes) •   -glucose; 1-4 linkage α • forms spirals ( α- helix) stabilized by hydrogen bonds TWO FORMS OF STARCH 1) AMYLOSE               • straight unbranched glucose chain                              • MW= thousands to hundred thousands                   2) AMYLOPECTIN       •  many linked short amylose chains                           •   α  1-4 links with  α  1-6 linked branch points                       •  similar to glycogen but less branched                     •  MOST STARCH = 10-30% amylose/70-90% amylopectin  •  stored as granules in plastids (chloroplasts and amyloplasts) 
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This note was uploaded on 02/14/2012 for the course BIO 151 taught by Professor Grinblat during the Fall '08 term at University of Wisconsin.

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Chapter 5 - Macromolecules Notes - (CARBOHYDRATES =...

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