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Chapter 17 - Protein Synthesis Notes

Chapter 17 - Protein Synthesis Notes - Protein Synthesis...

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Protein Synthesis ~Biology AP~ A Meridian Study Guide by David Guan, Jennifer Zheng [ Edited by Lei Gong] Introduction: - DNA and RNA are essential for life because they code for enzymes, which regulate chemical reactions that’s responsible for cell development, growth, and maintenance - Two step process: 1. transcription – use of DNA to make RNA 2. translation – use of RNA to make proteins Sugar Nitrogen Bases Function Structure DNA deoxyribose adenine, thymine, guanine, cytosine contains hereditary info of the cell double helix mRNA - provides information for assembling amino acids into proteins linear tRNA - helps with building polypeptide chain by delivering amino acids "clover- leaf" shaped RNA (3 kinds) Ribose adenine, uracil, guanine, cytosine rRNA - combines with proteins to form ribosomes globular DNA: Structure - made up of nucleotides (single unit of proteins) - 5 carbon sugar, each of them have a number: number the carbons starting from right of oxygen and go around clockwise - benefit is that it gives the nucleotide two ends o 5’ end is the side closer to carbon 5 o 3’ end is the side closer to carbon 3 Copyright© 2006 (October 26 th ) All rights reserved. Bio AP Study Guide v1.2 by Meridian Notes. Do not distribute or reproduce without replicating this copyright.
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Nucleic Acid Structure - double stranded - hydrogen bonds occur between bases o adenine pairs with thymine – causes two hydrogen bonds to form o cytosine pairs with guanine – causes three hydrogen bonds to form - strands are anti-parallel so that the bases can form hydrogen bonds o coding strand – one strand runs 5’ -> 3, similar to mRNA, but with thymine instead of uracil o template strand – one strand runs 3’ -> 5, the strand actually
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