Chapter 22 - Introduction the Evolution Notes

Chapter 22 - Introduction the Evolution Notes - CHAPTER 22-...

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CHAPTER 22 - Darwin’s Theory   Theodosius Dobzhansky~ "Nothing in Biology Makes Sense Except in the Light of Evolution"  EV OLUTION  = a change  over  time  in the  genetic  compo sition  of a  population     = chang e  in allele  frequency also  refers  to the  gradual  appearanc e  of all biological  diversity IDEAS THAT INFLUENCED DARWIN : ARISTOTLE - Anti-evolutionist-  saw  species  as  fixed  (unchanging)     •  all living  forms  could  be  arranged  on  a  ladder  of increasing  complexity  ( scala naturae) CAROLUS LINNAEUS   Taxonomy  =scienc e  of grouping  and  naming  organism s     Nested  hierarchy  classified  organisms  using  similarities/differenc e s  in characteristics       Binomial  nomenclature  ( Genus species naming ) D,K, P, C, O, F, G, S   • Anti-evolutionist – saw species as fixed    GEORGE CUVIER - Father  of Paleontology  - Anti-evolutionist                             CATASTROPHISM -mass  extinctions/repopulations  explain  change s  in fossil  record •Extinction  possible JAMES HUTTON   Earth  is  MILLIONS NOT THOUSANDS  of years  old   GRADUALISM  = profound  change  is cumulative  result of slow  but continuous  proce s s e s               CHARLES LYELL - Geologist   UNIFORMITARIANISM (incorporated  Hutton’s  gradualism)-                 Geological  proces s e s  that have  shaped  Earth  over  millions  of years  are  still happening                  Darwin read  Lyell’s  book   Principles of Geology  on the Beagle If earth can change, why can’t slow processes over long periods of time also produce changes in  living organisms?    JEAN BAPTISTE LAMARCK  - One  of first to sugge st  “ life has changed over time”    • published a theory of evolution before Darwin (1809) to explain fossil record    “Use and disuse”      body  parts  that get  used  beco m e  larger  and  stronger;  Unused  parts  beco m e  smaller                        “Inheritance of acquired characteristics”       modifications  acquired  during  the  life of an  organism  could  be  pass ed  to offspring Giraffes  stretch  for food    Their  necks  elongate    Longer  necks  are  pass ed  to offspring   NO  EVIDENCE  that acquired  traits  are  inherited  without changing  DNA, but. . .  what about  epigen etics  ?    •
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Chapter 22 - Introduction the Evolution Notes - CHAPTER 22-...

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