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Chapter 22 - Introduction to the Evolution Notes

Chapter 22 - Introduction to the Evolution Notes - AP...

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AP B IOLOGY @ UHS Knight/Darwinian Evolution Notes/ 1 Darwinian Evolution (Ch. 22) Historically Important Scientists and the History of Evolutionary Thought Linnaeus, Carolus (1707-1778) Botanist, Taxonomist Founder of taxonomy (system of naming and classifying organisms) invented the system of Binomial Nomenclature (eg. Ramphastos sulfuratus , the Keel-billed Toucan) Hierarchical system based on assessing similarities and differences in characteristics. [DKPCOGS] Believed in Creation & Fixity of Species Cuvier, George (1769-1832) Vertebrate Zoologist, largely responsible for developing paleontology . First to use Comparative Anatomy to develop a system for classifying animals "only needed single bone to describe organism” staunch supporter of creation & fixity of species Explained how between layers strata unique fossils were found unlike those above and below. suggested that after each in a series of catastrophes, mass extinctions and repopulations made it appear that species changes over time – Catastrophism . These were localized and the result of special creation. most crucial and longest-lasting contribution to biology was establishing extinction as a fact. Lamarck, Jean Baptist de (1744-1829) Invertebrate Zoologist impressed by changes in species associated with geological strata Proposed an evolutionary theory: Theory of Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics: more complex organisms are descended from less complex ones there is a built in drive to perfection Plants and animals adapt to the environment during there lifetimes; adaptations are passed to offspring. ( Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics ) e.g . Giraffes stretch for food Æ Their necks elongate Æ Longer necks are passed to offspring Use/Disuse: structures that are used extensively become larger/better and those that are not used become smaller. This is inheritable. A change in the environment causes changes in the needs of organisms living in that environment, which in turn causes changes in their behavior. Altered behavior leads to greater or lesser use of a given structure or organ; use would cause the structure to increase in size over several generations, whereas disuse would cause it to shrink or even disappear BUT we know there is no mechanism to permit this - cells that form gametes are separate from those in the rest of the body Lyell, Charles & Hutton, James Geologists (Lyell's book [ Principle’s of Geology
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