Chapter 31 - Fungi Notes - STRUCTURE CELL WALL composed of...

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FUNGI- Chapter 31 EX: mold, yeast, mushrooms, mildew  Eukaryotic Most multicellular  (exception = unicellular yeast) HAPLOID  MOST OF LIFE CYCLE HETEROTROPHS – feed by absorption (SAPROPHYTES)      Secrete hydrolytic enzymes to decompose organic material DECOMPOSERS:           Important role in recycling nutrients from dead material in ecosystems PARASITES : absorb organics from living host without killing them     EX: Athlete’s foot; Ringworm, Dutch elm disease, Ergot PREDATORS: trap/paralyze live prey (ie. Nematode worms) SYMBIOSIS :   LICHENS : (fungi + algae) make soil from rock MYCORRHIZAE (fungi + plants)   Provide H 2 0/phosphates/other ions to host;    Increases surface area for absorption by root of host plant   Plant provides nutrients to fungi   Many plants would not be successful without these fungal associations           (members of Zygomycota and Basidiomycota)
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Unformatted text preview: STRUCTURE CELL WALL composed of CHITIN Fungal Body made of threadlike FILAMENTS = HYPHAE Hyphae form mass called MYCELIUM H yphae divided into cells by walls (SEPTA) In some fungi, hyphae may not have septa = MULTINUCLEATE cells Mitosis of nucleus occurs without cytokinesis CAN BE BENEFICIAL Drugs -: penicillin; other antibiotics Food- mushrooms, truffles, morels yeast makes bread/beer/champagne CAN CAUSE DISEASE PLANTS: rust and smut REPRODUCTION ASEXUAL BUDDING in yeast Mycelium can make HAPLOID (1n) SPORES by mitosis spread by wind or water; grow into new mycelium SEXUAL Hyphae/nuclei from two different mating strains fuse DIPLOID (2n) ZYGOTE undergoes MEIOSIS to make HAPLOID (1n) SPORES SPORES produced BOTH sexually and asexua lly! ANIMALS: ringworm, athlete’s foot...
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