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2005 - BME 403 Respiratory Section Exam Fall 2005 1(20 Mark...

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Unformatted text preview: BME 403 Respiratory Section Exam Fall 2005 1. (20) Mark True(T) or False (F) one point each ( F )1.1 According to Fick’s law of diffusion the amount of gas that moves across a sheet of tissue is directly proportional to its thickness. ( T- )1.2 The pulmonary artery receives the whole output of the right heart. ( )1.3 Foreign particles which deposit in the alveoli are engulfed by wandering cells called cilia. ( l )1.4 Individual pulmonary capillary segments are so short that blood surrounding the alveoli forms an almost continuous sheet. ( f' )1.5 The partial pressure of water vapor in the lungs will change as a function of atmospheric(barometric) pressure. ( I: )1.6 Volumes measured under STPD conditions will always be less than BTPS conditions for normal body temperature. ( F )1 .7 Calculation of lung volume using a body plethysmograph is based on applying Charles’ law. ( r )1.8 If the lung is positioned in the inverted (upside down) posture apical regional blood flow should be higher than basal regional flow. ( )1.9 In the forced expiration pulmonary function test the effort independent flow condition is usually observed at high (near Total Lung Capacity) lung volumes. ( I )1.10 The perfusion limited condition of lung gas exchange occurs when diffusional equilibrium is reached before blood reaches the end of the pulmonary capillary. ( T)1.11 Normal resting breathing requires no expiratory muscle activity. ( F )1.12 A higher than normal value of standard bicarbonate is an indication of metabolic acidosis. r""'"" ( I )1.13 The slope of the blood buffer line decreases in anemia. ( F )1.14 The gas fraction of oxygen decreases at high altitudes. ( 2 )1.15 If the percentage saturation of arterial and mixed venous blood and cardiac output are constant, an increase in blood hemoglobin concentration will result in higher oxygen transport in the lungs. ( F: )1.16 Polycythemia refers to an anemia caused by acelimatization to high altitude. ( T)1.17 Absorption atelectasis refers to lung collapse due to high oxygen concentrations in the alveoli. ( ; )1.18 Maximum breathing capacity is usually enhanced at high altitude because of decreased gas density. ( )1 .l 9 In the upright lungs apical(top) ventilation is higher than basal ventilation. ( TIN .20 A pneumothorax allows the lungs to collapse and the thorax(chest wall) to spring out. ‘ 2.(20) Fill in the blanks. Two points each 2.1 Cells lining the alveoli secrete a liquid called 5U (”Fa (AWL/Vb. which increases the mechanical stability of the alveoli. 2.2 The [212mg mi— effect refers to the vertical shift in the carbon dioxide dissociation curve as a function of blood oxygen saturation level. 2.3 C, ii (if an; - S i Z} [— 55 respiration refers to abnormal periodic breathin due to respiratory control system instability. 2.4 Ventilation increases linearly with work rate but rises more rapidly when lactic acid is produced, if there is a clear break point it is called the KHz/((2 C’ ng I C, threshold. 2.5 The composition of the extracellular fluid around the central chemoreceptgclitiiskisK ”9‘1 L governed by the l :8 E fluid. (CC V3 9V?) S?‘ " 2.6 The pressure—flow charac 'stics for laminfr flow through tubes were first described by the French physician E0 [5 (1’. J I I C. . 2.7 The (6% VLO lck 3 number is the calculated variable which is used to predict when ow makes a transition from laminar to turbulent conditions. 2.8 During quiet breathing the CL“ E14 V61? t1/\is the muscle located at the separation of the thorax and abdom n whic drives inspiration. 2.9 The ex if VWL/ intercostals muscles are considered inspiratory muscles. A) 2.10 The 4‘ 2 24C C law relates surface tension, pressure, and radius of a soap bubble. 3.00) A scuba tank is to be filled with oxygen at a fraction (F102) to produce an inspired partial pressure of oxygen in the lungs(37 degrees C, water vapor pressure =47 mm Hg) of 900 mm Hg at a depth of 297 feet sea water(33 feet sw=760 mm Hg). Calculate F102. , 3:. m {7.40 err/74:00 W‘ W“ 9“} (7am ~47 )ECOLZ: Ciao F109: 3. (WA 4(5) A free diver(no tanks) starts off at sea level with a lung volume of 5 liters BTPS and descends to 99 feet of sea water, what is lung volume in BTPS at that depth assuming the diver holds his breath. Assume a body temperature of 37 degrees C (see problem 3). (walk); (”433 V d: {liq Lima m 5.(10) The gage pressure of a 5 liter scuba tank reads 2000 psi at a depth of 99 feet at time 0. (14.7 psi/760 mm Hg, 33 feet sw/760 mm Hg)If a subject is inspiring 10 liters/minute BTPS and the tank is dry at 15 degrees C, how long will it take in minutes for the tank to drop to 500 psi? (291(raaOUKS'): (“WWW M (Mn) (273+ is”) { e7 3 f 3 7) r? J/é L/ ‘5:- (QC/(7‘3) V ’ " ' 75%?) V3 I??? was % LIL/3719? M.x\\vl\c.)’i€_3 6.(10) Arterial blood has pH=7.62 and PC02=24.2 mm Hg. The buffer curve slope is — 31.6 mEq/pH unit. a) Calculate the HC03. b) Calculate the standard bicarbonate level c) classify the reSpiratory and metabolic status of this sample of blood. PH= 6.1 + logw ([HCO3]/(.03*PaC02)) [HC03]7_4=[HC03]-31.6*(7.4-pH) 575 mg‘ I gmofl : é D3 X9601) IO : (033(98):) (g; “ v :3 y’l‘7/IZ) pug—5L6) HCC 1:13,” - ghé (fig—74’2") . . ' 2: 3.17.? ,.. 7:037? > 24 .'. gag/abol‘é (HQ/as.) _.—-— PCOL: 2% L < 40 , ( stwdwj amalgam: 7.(15) Based on a two compartment of lung gas exchange, compartment 1 has a ventilation of 1.0 l/min, a blood flow of 4 Umin, and a P02 of 85 mm Hg, compartment 2 has a ventilation of 5 l/min, a blood flow of 2 11min and a P02 of 110 mm Hg. Calculate the alveolar and pulmonary venous P02. C302 = 0.201*§a02 [/1 blood . . Saoz = (1-6- 046 P302)2 ?A C! ‘5'— /,.————r—‘§-—'— -—-- c 8(10) Lung compliance is 0.2 liter/cm H20 and chest wall compliance is 0.25 liter/cm H20. a) What is the combined compliance of the combined lung and chest wall? Hint, mechanically this is like two springs in parallel or electrically as capacitances in series. b) Calculate the total elastic work in cm H20*liters to inspire from the relaxed level(zero respiratory muscle pressure) to 0.75 liters lung volume. Vol=C*Pressure Work=integral P dV c9 A -( ...L—- (Ci-.23” C ... {ii—2;) :d‘m j: dag—,2, W74 'ZC+‘L Q/C‘m H2; ...
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