10_27_11_Nervous-systemTissuesAndRetinalRemodeling

10_27_11_Nervous-systemTissuesAndRetinalRemodeling -...

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Unformatted text preview: Outline of the Lecture Outline of the Lecture Tissue Engineering for the Nervous System Tissue Engineering for the Nervous System Neurodegeneration Spinal-cord Injury ESC Neurodegeneration Spinal-cord Injury ESC Approaches Approaches Embryonic Stem Cell Embryonic Stem Cell Transplantation Is a Transplantation Is a Promising Approach for Promising Approach for Nervous-system Repair Nervous-system Repair In neuro-degenerative disorder’s, e.g., Parkin- son’s disease, cell replacement and protective brain implants may compensate for neural loss. One may implant naked neurons or via encap- sulated cell biodelivery implants (a cell line in a polymeric matrix) placed by stereotactic surgery. The spinal cord has a central core of gray matter (neural cell bodies) enveloped by myelinated ax- ons; injuries often leave caudal segments intact. Spinal-cord injuries grow after the initial trauma because of swelling, venous infarct, and injury to neighboring tissue (by necrosis or apoptosis). Strategies for the spinal-cord repair: 1. prevention of secondary injury; 2. compensation for demyelinization; 3. removal of inhibition. 4. promotion of axonal regeneration; 5. direction of axons to proper targets; 6. creation of bridges; 7. replacement of lost cells. ESCs can be made by in vitro fertilization, by somatic nuclear fusion leading to the blastocyst stage (A), or by parthenogenic activation (B). Differentiating ESCs begin with embryoid bodies, as neural spheres in the CNS. A-C mouse; D,E human; green anti-β-tubulin; red; red anti-DNA. Agents as retinoic acid, induce neural progenitors from mouse ESCs: A,B Type I and II astrocytes; C. Olygodendrocytes; D. Neurons. Develop- mentally rel- evant sig- naling fac- tors can induce mouse’s ESCs to differentiate into spinal progenitor cells and then motor neurons. Motor neurons derived from mouse’s ESCs can populate the embryonic spinal cord, extend axons, and form synapses with target muscles. Transplanted ESCs induced to be neural-cell pre- cursors survive, migrate long distances, and dif- ferentiate into the 3 principal neural cell types. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) labels proliferating cells, which are glia (D; glial fibrillary acid protein) or neural (E; adenomatous polyposis coli).or neural (E; adenomatous polyposis coli)....
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10_27_11_Nervous-systemTissuesAndRetinalRemodeling -...

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