Unformatted text preview: lop at any stage in pregnancy, although it is more common in the last trimester. Renal agenesis (failure of fetal kidney forma&on) is the main cause of oligohydramnios. Amnio=c Fluid Chemical Composi=on The composi&on of the amnio&c fluid changes with gesta&on: in early pregnancy it is similar to maternal and fetal serum. 98-99% of the amnio&c fluid water is A large number of dissolved substances such as Different cell types crea&nine, urea, bile pigments, renin, glucose, fructose, proteins (albumin and globulin), lipids, hormones (estrogen and progestrone ), enzymes, minerals (Na+ ,K+ Cl- ). During the second half of gesta&on its osmolarity decreases and is close to dilute fetal urine with added phospholipids and other substances from fetal lung and other metabolites . Amniocentesis Amniocentesis is the removal of a small amount of amnio&c fluid from the sac around the baby. This is usually performed at 16 (15-20) weeks in pregnancy. A fine needle is inserted under ultrasound guidance through the mothers' abdomen into a pool of amnio&c fluid. Diagnos&c tool Amniocentesis is a valuable tool to asses fetus well-being It mainly looks at: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. fetal chromosomes and their abnormali&es (ex: Down Syndrome) neurodegenera&ve diseases analysis of its density can determine the presence of fetal hemolysis presence of specific proteins can indicate infec&ons values of different molecules can indicate the maturity or the right development of organs such as lung or kidney 2. Amnio&c Fluid Cells
Amniotic Fluid cell populations AFSC are 1% of the total popula&on Which cells reside within the other 99%? Studies reported the presence of cells within Amnio&c Fluid such as: Mesenchymal Cells Hematopoie&c Cells Neural Progenitor cells AF cell characteriza=on 1. Is cell composi&on changing? 2. If so, how cell composi&on is affected? All the three Germ Layers (Mesoderm, Endoderm and Ectoderm) Pluripotent Cells Organ specific Progenitor Cells (Lung, Liver, Heart, Kidney) Mature c...
View Full Document
This note was uploaded on 02/15/2012 for the course BME 410 taught by Professor Han during the Fall '08 term at USC.
- Fall '08