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9_22_11_BiomaterialsInTissueEngineering(1)

9_22_11_BiomaterialsInTissueEngineering(1) - Outline of the...

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Outline of the Lecture Polymer Patterning and Cellular Interactions Polymers 2D Environmental Patterning Cell-polymer Interactions
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One Can Pattern the 2D Environment of Cells with Polymers and They Interact with the Cells
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I. General Classification of Materials Metal: Stainless steels. Cobalt-based Alloys Titanium based alloys Ceramic Hydroxyapatite Pyrolytic carbon Polymer Composite
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Biomechanics Failure analyses (tensile fracture, compression, shear, stress, fatigue, wear,...) Structure & Geometry Imaging techniques (SEM, TEM, microCT, histology) Biocompatibility and Cell Response II. Analysis of Material Properties
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Cytotoxicity Usually first step in biocompatibility testing Usually done with fibroblasts - Why? -sensitive to toxic substances -easy to grow in the lab How are the tests performed ? 1. Direct contact - materials directly in contact with monolayer of cells 2. Agar overlay - material in contact with agar on top of monolayer 3. Extract in media or on disc in agar overlay
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III. Structure and Properties of Polymeric Materials. Polymers- - long chains of repeating units (monomers) - may be more than one kind of monomeric unit Poly(ethylene) (1-unit) vs. Proteins - can be biological or synthetic Collagen vs. PTFE Biomaterial/Tissue interface plays a key role in design and applications of biomaterials
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Natural Polymers Collagen, Hynluronic acid, Chitosan, alginate, Dextran Sulfate Advantages Generally have high biocompatibility Intrinsic cellular interactions Biodegradable Cell controlled degradability Low toxicity byproducts Disadvantages Mechanical Strength Batch variation Animal derived materials may pass on viruses - Combination - Crosslinked gelatin - alginate+ chitosan
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Poly(β -hydroxybutyrate) is a polymer made by several microorganisms, and applied to drug release, artificial skin, and heart valves.
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Synthetic Polymers Advantages Precise control and mass produced Can be tailored to give a wide range of properties (can be designed to meet specific needs) Low immunogenecity Minimize risk of biological pathogens or contaminants Disadvantages Relatively Low biodegradability Can include toxic substances Combination of natural and synthetic Collagen-acrylate, Collagen-Silane
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Tacticity is simply the way pendant groups are arranged along the backbone chain of a polymer. Sutures, Surgical mesh, Personal hygiene prod Syringes Vials Example of Low Degradability Synthetic Polymer: Poly(propylene) (PP)
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Plasticizers, problem for long-term application. IV bags, tubing, plasmapheresis membrane, blood bag Example of Low Degradability Synthetic Polymer: Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC)
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Example of Low Degradability Synthetic Polymer: Poly(urethane) (PU) Foams, coating, adhesive/sealant, elastomers, new biodegradable PU
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Example of Low Degradability Synthetic Polymer: Poly(tetrafluoroethylene), PTFE Hydrophobic Low cellular adhesion Low degradability Easily manufactured Low strength ePTFE - expanded Teflon, Microporous form (Gore-Tex), Used in sutures, artificial blood vessels, hip socket replacement, soft tissue
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