Chapter 7 - Chapter 7: Learning and Conditioning...

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Chapter 7: Learning and Conditioning Interactive Lectures Research on learning has been heavily influenced by behaviorism , which accounts for behavior in terms of observable events without reference to mental entities such as "mind" or "will." Behaviorists have focused on two types of conditioning : classical and operant. Classical Conditioning Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov first studied classical conditioning . In this type of learning, when a neutral stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus (US) that elicits some reflexive unconditioned response (UR) , the neutral stimulus comes to elicit a similar or related response. The neutral stimulus is then called a conditioned stimulus (CS) , and the response it elicits is a conditioned response (CR) . Nearly any kind of involuntary response can become a CR. In extinction , the conditioned stimulus is repeatedly presented without the unconditioned stimulus, and the conditioned response eventually disappears— although later it may reappear ( spontaneous recovery ). Acquisition and Extinction In higher-order conditioning , a neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus by being paired with an already established conditioned stimulus. Higher-Order Conditioning In stimulus generalization , after a stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus for some response, other, similar stimuli may produce the same reaction. In stimulus discrimination , different responses are made to stimuli that resemble the conditioned stimulus in some way. Many theorists believe that what an animal or person learns in classical conditioning is not just an association between the unconditioned and the conditioned stimulus, but information conveyed by one stimulus about another. Indeed, classical conditioning appears to be an evolutionary adaptation that allows an organism to prepare for a biologically important event. Considerable evidence exists to show that a neutral stimulus does not become a CS unless it reliably signals or predicts
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This note was uploaded on 02/15/2012 for the course PSY 1012 taught by Professor Rogers during the Spring '10 term at Daytona State College.

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Chapter 7 - Chapter 7: Learning and Conditioning...

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