Chapter 9 - Chapter 9: Thinking and Intelligence...

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Chapter 9: Thinking and Intelligence Interactive Lectures 1. Thought: Using What We Know Thinking is the mental manipulation of information. Our mental representations simplify and summarize information from the environment. A concept is a mental category that groups objects, relations, activities, abstractions, or qualities that share certain properties. Basic concepts have a moderate number of instances and are easier to acquire than concepts with few or many instances. Prototypical instances of a concept are more representative than others. Propositions are made up of concepts and express a unitary idea. They may be linked together to form cognitive schemas , which serve as mental models of aspects of the world. Mental images also play a role in thinking. Elements of Cognition Not all mental processing is conscious. Subconscious processes lie outside of awareness but can be brought into consciousness when necessary. Nonconscious processes remain outside of awareness but nonetheless affect behavior and are involved in what we call "intuition" and "insight," and in implicit learning . Conscious processing may be carried out in a mindless fashion if we overlook changes in context that call for a change in behavior. Reasoning Rationally Reasoning is purposeful mental activity that involves drawing inferences and conclusions from observations, facts, or assumptions (premises). Formal reasoning problems can often be solved by applying an algorithm , a set of procedures that are guaranteed to produce a solution, or by using logical processes, such as deductive and inductive reasoning . Deductive Reasoning Inductive Reasoning Informal reasoning problems may have no clearly correct solution. Disagreement may exist about basic premises, information may be incomplete, and many viewpoints may compete. Such problems may call for the application of heuristics , rules of thumb that suggest a course of action without guaranteeing an optimal solution. They may also require dialectical thinking about opposing points of view.
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Chapter 9 - Chapter 9: Thinking and Intelligence...

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