APK3110_Chapter7_partC_Spring12

APK3110_Chapter7_par - THE NERVOUS SYSTEM STRUCTURE AND CONTROL OF MOVEMENT Chapter 7 Objectives 1 Describe the role of the vestibular apparatus in

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THE NERVOUS SYSTEM: STRUCTURE AND CONTROL OF MOVEMENT Chapter 7
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Objectives 1. Describe the role of the vestibular apparatus in maintaining equilibrium. 2. Discuss the brain centers involved in voluntary control of movement. 3. Describe the structure and function of the autonomic nervous system.
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Somatic motor function Somatic motor neurons of PNS The term “Somatic” refers to nonvisceral regions of body Responsible for carrying neural signals from spinal cord to skeletal muscles to contract
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Somatic motor function Figure 7.15 The cell body of motor neurons is located in the spinal cord The axon leaves the spinal cord and splits into collateral branches; each branch innervates a single muscle fiber . Motor unit : motor neuron and all the muscle fibers it innervates Activation of a single motor neuron leads to contraction of all the muscle fibers it innervates. Motor neuron : also called an alpha motor neuron is the somatic neuron that innervates skeletal muscle fibers
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Innervation ratio Innervation ratio: number of muscle fibers/motor neuron This ratio varies from muscle to muscle Low ratio in muscles that require fine motor control 23/1 in extraocular muscles responsible for eye movement Higher ratio in other muscles 1,000/1 to 2,000/1 in large muscles (e.g., leg muscles)
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Vestibular apparatus Responsible for maintaining balance Located in the inner ear Sensitive to changes in head position or movement direction Provides information about linear and angular acceleration Linear acceleration → sense of acceleration or deceleration when running Angular acceleration → maintain balance when head is turning or spinning (e.g, gymnastics or diving) Controls head and eye movement during exercise which helps maintain balance and allows for visual tracking of movement
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An athlete performing skilled movement is the result of a complex integration of many parts of the nervous system
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Brain: the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brain stem Cerebrum Cerebellum Brain stem: Midbrain Pons Medulla Oblongata
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Brain stem Located inside the base of scull just above the spinal cord Major structures: Midbrain Pons Medulla oblongata Reticular formation (neurons scattered throughout the brain stem) Receives & integrates information from all regions of the CNS Works with higher brain centers in controlling muscular activity
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This note was uploaded on 02/15/2012 for the course APK 3110C taught by Professor Dr.christou during the Spring '11 term at University of Florida.

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APK3110_Chapter7_par - THE NERVOUS SYSTEM STRUCTURE AND CONTROL OF MOVEMENT Chapter 7 Objectives 1 Describe the role of the vestibular apparatus in

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