APK3110-Ch3-Bioenergetics_Spring+2012_T_part+B

APK3110-Ch3-Bioenergetics_Spring+2012_T_part+B -...

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BIOENERGETICS CHAPTER 3
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Objectives Discuss the biochemical pathways involved in anaerobic ATP production Discuss the aerobic production of ATP Discuss the interaction between aerobic and anaerobic ATP production during exercise Identify the enzymes that are considered rate limiting in glycolysis and the Krebs cycle
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Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP): energy currency of life high energy bond Figure 3.10 ADP + P i + Energy ATP ATPase energy required to form bond when broken energy is released
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Pathways of ATP Production 3 metabolic pathways of ATP production: 1. Phosphocreatine (PC) breakdown ADP + PC → ATP + C 1. Glycolysis Glucose → 2 ATP + 2 pyruvate or 2 lactate 1. Oxidative phosphorylation -anaerobic (O 2 -independent) -occurs in sarcoplasm -aerobic (O 2 -dependent) -occurs in mitochondria
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Glycolysis Can produce ATP rapidly Anaerobic pathway used to transfer bond energy from glucose to rejoin Pi to ADP to make ATP. Breaks down glucose or glycogen to form 2 molecules of pyruvate or lactate. Occurs in the sacroplasm of muscle cells System must be “primed” by the addition of ATP Anaerobic Figure 3.13 Endergonic Exergonic
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Glycolysis begins with G-6-P Formation Figure 3.14 Glycogen is only minimally stored in the sarcoplasm, so most glucose comes from liver glycogenolysis . Regardless of the source of glucose for glycolysis, glucose has to be phoshorylated to form glucose 6-phosphate Glucose obtained from glycogen does not require ATP to form glucose 6- phosphate but instead uses inorganic (Pi) phosphate located in the cell. energy required
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Net Exergonic Glycogen 1 ATP Glycogen 3 ATP Glucose Products of glycolysis when glucose is obtained from glycogen
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Glycolysis
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“Carrier Molecules” Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) Flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) NAD and FAD transport H + ions (and their associated electrons) to bioenergetic pathways for ATP production In glycolysis, NAD accepts a H + atom The NAD must be restored, or glycolysis will stop Two ways to regenerate NAD 1. If sufficient O 2 , NADH can be shuttled into the mitochondria, where it will give up its electrons to form ATP ( aerobic ) 2. If insufficient O 2 , pyruvic acid can accept H+ ions to form lactic acid ( anaerobic ) G-3-P 1,3-biphosphoglycerate (BPG) NAD + NADH P i
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APK3110-Ch3-Bioenergetics_Spring+2012_T_part+B -...

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