solut13b - CHAPTER 13 79. BONDING: GENERAL CONCEPTS 399...

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CHAPTER 13 BONDING: GENERAL CONCEPTS 399 S O O O 79. Molecules which have an overall dipole moment are called polar molecules and molecules which do not have an overall dipole moment are called nonpolar molecules. a. OCl 2 , 6 + 2(7) = 20 e - KrF 2 , 8 + 2(7) = 22 e - V-shaped, polar; OCl 2 is polar because Linear, nonpolar; The molecule is the two O - Cl bond dipoles don&t cancel nonpolar because the two Kr - F each other. The resultant dipole moment bond dipoles cancel each other. is shown in the drawing. BeH 2 , 2 + 2(1) = 4 e - SO 2 , 6 + 2(6) = 18 e - Linear, nonpolar; Be - H bond dipoles V-shaped, polar; The S - O bond dipoles are equal and point in opposite directions. do not cancel so SO 2 is polar (has a dipole They cancel each other. BeH 2 is nonpolar. moment). Only one resonance structure is shown. Note: All four species contain three atoms. They have different structures because the number of lone pairs of electrons around the central atom are different in each case. b. SO 3 , 6 + 3(6) = 24 e - NF 3 , 5 + 3(7) = 26 e - Trigonal planar, nonpolar; Trigonal pyramid, polar; Bond dipoles cancel. Only one Bond dipoles do not cancel. resonance structure is shown. IF 3 has 7 + 3(7) = 28 valence electrons. T-shaped, polar; Bond dipoles do not cancel. O Cl O FK rF HB eH N F F F
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400 CHAPTER 13 BONDING: GENERAL CONCEPTS C F F F F As F F F F F I F F F F F C Cl H H Note: Each molecule has the same number of atoms, but the structures are different because of differing numbers of lone pairs around each central atom. c. CF 4 , 4 + 4(7) = 32 e - SeF 4 , 6 + 4(7) = 34 e - Tetrahedral, nonpolar; See-saw, polar; Bond dipoles cancel. Bond dipoles do not cancel. KrF 4 , 8 + 4(7) = 36 valence electrons Square planar, nonpolar; Bond dipoles cancel. Again, each molecule has the same number of atoms, but a different structure because of differing numbers of lone pairs around the central atom. d. IF 5 , 7 + 5(7) = 42 e - AsF 5 , 5 + 5(7) = 40 e - Square pyramid, polar; Trigonal bipyramid, nonpolar; Bond dipoles do not cancel. Bond dipoles cancel. Yet again, the molecules have the same number of atoms, but different structures because of the presence of differing numbers of lone pairs. 80. a. The C -H bonds are assumed nonpolar since the electronegativities of C and H are about equal. δ + δ - Se F F F F
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CHAPTER 13 BONDING: GENERAL CONCEPTS 401 C H Cl C Cl C Cl Cl Cl NNO δ+ δ− C - Cl is the charge distribution for each C - Cl bond. The two individual C - Cl bond dipoles add together to give an overall dipole moment for the molecule. The overall dipole will point from C (positive end) to the midpoint of the two Cl atoms (negative end). δ + δ - C - Cl The C - H bond is essentially nonpolar. The three C - Cl bond dipoles in CHCl 3 add together to give an overall dipole moment for the molecule. The overall dipole will have the negative end at the midpoint of the three chlorines and the positive end around the carbon.
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This homework help was uploaded on 04/06/2008 for the course CHEM 142 taught by Professor Zoller,williamh during the Fall '07 term at University of Washington.

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solut13b - CHAPTER 13 79. BONDING: GENERAL CONCEPTS 399...

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