Chapter+8+Lecture+Notes

Chapter+8+Lecture+Notes - Chapter 8 Gases 8.1 Early...

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8/10/09 GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 8 1 Chapter 8 Gases 8.1 Early Experiments 8.2 The Gas Laws of Boyle, Charles and Avogadro 8.3 The Ideal Gas Law 8.4 Gas Stoichiometry 8.5 Dalton’s Laws of Partial Pressure 8.6 The Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases 8.7 Effusion and Diffusion 8.8 Collisions of Gas Particles with the Container Walls 8.9 Intermolecular Collisions 8.10 Real Gases 8.11 Chemistry in the Atmosphere
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8/10/09 GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 8 2 Chapter 8 Objectives 8.1: Explain how gas molecules differ in nature than solid and liquid molecules. 8.2: Outline the basic relationships between pressure, volume, temperature, and the number of moles observed with gases. 8.3: Include a discussion of how these can be applied experimentally to identify unknown gases using density and molecular weight. 8.4: Provide an overview of the Kinetic Theory of Gases and include a brief discussion of average kinetic energy and molecular speed. 8.5: Differentiate between the processes of diffusion and effusion and introduce Graham’s law.
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8/10/09 GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 8 3 “When you can measure what you are speaking about and express it in numbers, you know something about it; but when you cannot measure it, when you cannot express it in numbers, you knowledge is of a meager and unsatisfactory kind; it may be the beginning of knowledge but you have scarcely, in your thoughts advanced to the stage of science, whatever the matter may be.” Lecture to the Institution of Civil Engineers, 3 May 1883 The Person Behind the Science Lord Kelvin (William Thomson) 1824-1907
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8/10/09 GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 8 4 The Person Behind the Science Evangelista Torricelli (1608-1647) Highlights In 1641, moved to Florence to assist the astronomer Galileo. Designed first barometer It was Galileo that suggested Evangelista Torricelli use mercury in his vacuum experiments. Torricelli filled a four-foot long glass tube with mercury and inverted the tube into a dish. Moments in a Life Succeed Galileo as professor of mathematics in the University of Pisa. Asteroid (7437) Torricelli named in his honor Barometer
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8/10/09 GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 8 5 A pressure of 101.325 kPa is need to raise the column of Hg “standard pressure” 760 mm Hg = 760 torr = 1 atm = 101.325 kPa
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8/10/09 GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 8 6 PV = n RT ideal gas law
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8/10/09 GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 8 7 Boyle’s Law Charles’ Law Avogadro V P -1 V T V n 1662 1787 1811
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GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 8 8 Boyle’s Law: The Effect of Pressure on Gas Volume The product of the pressure and volume, PV , of a sample of gas is a constant at a constant temperature: (at a fixed temperature and for a fixed amount of gas)
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8/10/09 GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 8 9 Boyle’s Law: The Effect of Pressure on Gas Volume Example The long cylinder of a bicycle pump has a volume of 1131 cm 3 and is filled with air at a pressure of 1.02 atm. The outlet valve is sealed shut, and the pump handle is pushed down until the volume of the air is 517 cm 3 . The temperature of the air trapped inside does not change. Compute the pressure inside the pump.
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8/10/09 GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 8 10 Gas Stoichiometry STP
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Chapter+8+Lecture+Notes - Chapter 8 Gases 8.1 Early...

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