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# Chapter+10+Lecture+Notes - Chapter 10 Properties of...

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8/10/09 GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 10 1 Chapter 10 Properties of Solutions 10.1 Solution Composition 10.2 The Thermodynamics of Solution Formation (skip) 10.3 Factors Affecting Solubility 10.4 The Vapor Pressures of Solutions 10.5 Boiling-Point Elevation and Freezing-Point Depression 10.6 Osmotic Pressure 10.7 Colligative Properties of Electrolyte Solutions 10.8 Colloids

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8/10/09 GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 10 2 Chapter 10 Objectives 10.1: Define solutions and the different mathematical methods for describing solution composition. 10.2: Provide a qualitative and pictorial description of vapor pressure. 10.3: Discuss Raoult’s Law in a quantitative and qualitative method for describing vapor pressure. 10.4: Outline the role of colligative properties and provide mathematical and qualitative descriptions for colligative properties.
8/10/09 3 Solution Composition Solution: A homogeneous mixture Solvent: Solute: The major component The minor component The solute and solvent can be any combination of solid ( s ), liquid ( l ), and gaseous ( g ) phases. Dissolution: Two (or more) substances spread out, or disperse, into each other at the level of individual atoms, molecules, or ions.

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8/10/09 GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 10 4 Solution Compostion Mass percentage (weight percentage): mass percentage of the component = Mole fraction: The chemical amount (in moles) divided by the total amount (in moles) Define: Mass Fraction , Mole Fraction , Molality and Molarity X 1 =
5 Molality m solute = Molarity c solute = Note the difference between Molality and Molarity

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8/10/09 GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 10 6 Section 10-2 • The Thermodynamics of Solution Formation ( skip ) • will cover Thermodynamics later in course, Chapters 14 & 15.
8/10/09 GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 10 7 Factors Affecting Solubility 1. Structure Effects Review chapter 4 – “Like Dissolves Like” concept Polar molecules , water soluble, hydrophilic (water loving) E.g., Vitamins B and C; water-soluble Non-polar molecules , soluble in non-polar molecules, hydrophobic (water fearing) E.g., Vitamins A, D, K and E; fat-soluble

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8/10/09 GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 10 8 Factors Affecting Solubility 1. Structure Effects 2. Pressure Effects Henry’s Law (for dilute solutions) The vapor pressure of a volatile solute (gas) in a sufficiently dilute solution is proportional to the mole fraction of the solute in the solution.
8/10/09

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Chapter+10+Lecture+Notes - Chapter 10 Properties of...

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