Chapter+11+Lecture+Notes - Chapter 11 Chemical Equilibrium...

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8/10/09 GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 11 1 Chapter 11 Chemical Equilibrium 11.1 The Equilibrium Condition 11.2 The Equilibrium Constant 11.3 Equilibrium Expressions Involving Pressures 11.4 The Concept of Activity 11.5 Heterogeneous Equilibria 11.6 Applications of the Equilibrium Constant 11.7 Solving Equilibrium Problems 11.8 Le Chatelier's Principle 11.9 Equilibria Involving Real Gases
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8/10/09 GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 11 2 Chapter 11 Objectives 11.1 Define equilibrium and explain on a microscopic level why equilibrium is observed. 11.2 Introduce the equilibrium constant as a way of defining the extent of equilibrium. Include a discussion of the use of pressure, concentration, and activity when expressing equilibrium. 11.3 Describe the relationships which exist among equilibrium constants for heterogeneous reactions. 11.4 Provide examples of how to solving equilibrium problems. 11.5 Outline the fundamentals of Le Chatelier's Principle
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8/10/09 GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 11 3 Same equilibrium achieved whether starting with pure reactants or pure “products”
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8/10/09 GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 11 4 Chemical Reactions and Equilibrium The equilibrium condition for every reaction can be described in a single equation in which a number, the equilibrium constant (K) of the reaction, equals an equilibrium expression , a function of properties of the reactants and products. Temperature ( o C) Vapor Pressure (atm) 15.0 0.01683 17.0 0.01912 19.0 0.02168 21.0 0.02454 23.0 0.02772 25.0 0.03126 30.0 0.04187 50.0 0.1217
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8/10/09 GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 11 5 Chemical Reactions and Equilibrium The convention is to express all pressures in atmospheres and to omit factors of P ref because their value is unity. An equilibrium constant K is a pure number. H 2 O ( l ) H 2 O ( g ) K p = P H 2 O The concept of Activity ( i- th component) = a i = P i / P reference @ 25 o C K p = 0.03126 atm K = 0.03126 unit less
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8/10/09 GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 11 6 Same equilibrium achieved whether starting with pure reactants or pure “products”
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8/10/09 GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 11 7 Chemical Reactions and Equilibrium As the equilibrium state is approached, the forward and backward rates of reaction approach equality. At equilibrium the rates are equal, and no further net change occurs in the partial pressures of reactants or products. 1. They display no macroscopic evidence of change. 2. They are reached through spontaneous processes. 3. They show a dynamic balance of forward and backward processes. 4. They are the same regardless of the direction from which they are approached. Four fundamental characteristics of equilibrium states in isolated systems:
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8/10/09 GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 11 8 The Form of Equilibrium Expressions In a chemical reaction in which a moles of species A and b moles of species B react to form c moles of species C and d moles of species D, the partial pressures at equilibrium are related through provided that all species are present as low-pressure gases.
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8/10/09 GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 11 9 Law of Mass Action Partial pressures and concentrations of products appear in the numerator and those of the reactants in the denominator.
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This note was uploaded on 02/15/2012 for the course CHEM 1310 taught by Professor Cox during the Spring '08 term at Georgia Institute of Technology.

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Chapter+11+Lecture+Notes - Chapter 11 Chemical Equilibrium...

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