Chapter+12+Lecture+Notes

Chapter+12+Lecture+Notes - Chapter 12 Objectives 12.1:...

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8/10/09 GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 12 1 Chapter 12 Objectives 12.1: Introduce the Arrhenius and Bronsted-Lowry acid-base definitions and focus on identification and characterization of acids and bases using these definitions. 12.2: Differentiate between strong and weak acids, as well as, strong and weak bases using equilibrium calculations and microscopic depictions. This will include a discussion of structural features promoting complete versus partial dissociation. 12.3: Discuss acid and base dissociation constants and simple acid-base calculations. 12.4: Use the p-scale measurements (pH, pKa, and pKb) for measuring acidicity and basicity of samples. 12.5: Discuss the autoionization of water and introduce the constant Kw and explain its significance and use for pH calculations. 12.6: Discuss the acid-base chemistry of common chemicals encountered in daily life.
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Chapter 12 Acids and Bases 12.1 The Nature of Acids and Bases 12.2 Acid Strength 12.3 The pH Scale 12.4 Calculating the pH of Strong Acid Solutions 12.5 Calculating the pH of Weak Acid Solutions 12.6 Bases 12.7 Polyprotic Acids (lab experiment notes included) 12.8 Acid-Base Properties of Salts 12.9 Acid Solutions in Which Water Contributes to the H + Concentration (skip) 12.10 Strong Acid Solutions in Which Water Contributes to the H + Concentration (skip) 12.11 Strategy for Solving Acid-Base Problems: A Summary
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8/10/09 GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 12 3 Acids and Bases and Their Reactions (from Chapter 4) Acid Base Theory 1. Arrhenius Acids and Bases Acids are 2. Arrhenius Broadened Definition 3. Arrhenius 1903 Nobel Prize
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8/10/09 GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 12 4 Acid-Base Equilibria Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases A Brønsted-Lowry acid is a substance that can Brønsted-Lowry base is a substance that can In the Brønsted-Lowry Acid and Base concept, acids and bases occur as conjugate acid - base pairs .
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8/10/09 GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 12 5 Conjugate Base - subtract an H + from the acid Conjugate Acid add H + to the base Examples 1.OH is the conjugate base of 2.H 2 O is the conjugated base of 3.H 2 O is the conjugated acid of 4.H 3 O + (or often shown as H + ) is the conjugate acid of
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8/10/09 GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 12 6 Pairs 1 2 2 1 Acetic Acid Point of View #1 CH 3 CO 2 H + H 2 O ! H 3 O + + CH 3 CO 2 - Point of View #2 CH 3 CO 2 H + H 2 O ! H 3 O + + CH 3 CO 2 - Acetate Ion CH 3 CO 2 H + H 2 O ! H 3 O + + CH 3 CO 2 -
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8/10/09 GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 12 7 Nomenclature When H + is hydrated it is H 3 O + and called a hydronium ion . Often H 3 O + is written in a simpler notation H + (also called a proton) 111.7° +
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8/10/09 GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 12 8 Competition for the proton between two bases H 2 O and A If H 2 O is a much stronger base than A the equilibrium lies far to the right. If A is a much stronger base than H 2 O the equilibrium lies far to the left.
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Chapter+12+Lecture+Notes - Chapter 12 Objectives 12.1:...

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