GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 15

GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 15 - Chapter 15 - Spontaneity,...

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GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 15 1 11/14/09 Chapter 15 - Spontaneity, Entropy, and Free Energy 15.1 Spontaneous Processes 15.2 The Isothermal Expansion and Compression of an Ideal Gas 15.3 The Definition of Entropy 15.4 Entropy and Physical Changes 15.5 Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics 15.6 The Effect of Temperature on Spontaneity 15.7 Free Energy 15.8 Entropy Changes in Chemical Reactions 15.9 Free Energy and Chemical Reactions 15.10 The Dependence of Free Energy on Pressure 15.11 Free Energy and Equilibrium 15.12 Free Energy and Work (skip) 15.13 Reversible and Irreversible Processes: A Summary (skip) 15.14 Adiabatic Processes (skip)
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GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 15 2 Chapter 15 Objectives 15.1: Introduce the second law of thermodynamics by first providing a brief overview of Boltzmann’s approach of using microstates to measuring the entropy of a chemical system. 15.2: Provide a brief calculus-based discussion of reversible vs. irreversible systems in order to introduce the classical definition of entropy. 15.3: Include basic calculations for entropy changes with an emphasis on the phase changes and heating. 15.4: Discuss various factors that increase or decrease the entropy of a system. 15.5: Describe the significance of the third law of thermodynamics with regard to entropy. 15.6: Derive Gibb’s Free Energy and discuss the four difference scenarios with regard to temperature dependence of a given system. 15.7: Outline the relationship between Gibb’s Free Energy and equilibrium. 15.8: Reiterate the significance of Hess’ Law for state functions such as free energy and entropy.
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GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 15 3 11/14/09 Chemical Reactions – Thermodynamics predicts direction – Chemical Kinetics predicts speed (rate) and pathway from reactants to products. Spontaneous Processes – Occur without outside intervention – Nature spontaneously proceeds toward the states with the highest probability of existing.
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GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 15 4 11/14/09 Why does an ideal gas expand into an evacuated bulb? Three possible arrangements (states) of four molecules Relative Probability 1 4 6 Most likely
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GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 15 5 11/14/09 Probability of occurrence of a particular arrangement (state) depends on the number of ways ( microstates ) in which that arrangement can be achieved. 2 molecules Probability of finding 2 molecules on the same side is 1/4
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GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 15 6 11/14/09 Chemical Reactions Thermodynamics predicts direction Chemical Kinetics predicts speed (rate) and pathway from reactants to products. Spontaneous Processes Occur without outside intervention Nature spontaneously proceeds toward the states with the highest probability of existing. Entropy Is the driving force behind spontaneous processes Is how energy is distributed among energy levels in “particles” Is a quantitative measure of the degree of disorder (randomness) measured in “microstates”.
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GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 15 7 11/14/09 Isothermal Expansion and Compress of an Ideal Gas Isothermal – system and surroundings maintain constant temperature.
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GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 15 - Chapter 15 - Spontaneity,...

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