Lecture11_Atm_Circulation (1)

Lecture11_Atm_Circulation (1) - EAS 1600 Introduction to...

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EAS 1600 Introduction to Environmental Sciences Class11- General Circulation of the Atmosphere In this class we discuss the general circulation of the atmosphere and its role in redistributing the energy that was unevenly deposited on the Earth by the absorption of solar energy. It is sometimes said that the atmosphere is ne massive eat engine riven by solar one massive heat engine driven by solar radiation and that weather is simply the anifestation of the heat engine’swork manifestation of the heat engine s work. Today we find out why . .. But first a few definitions: General circulation: The long-term average winds (directions and speed) in the atmosphere as a function of location. By long- term,we usually mean on decadal time scales. limate: The long- rm average state of the atmosphere. Ca t e eog te a e age state o t e at osp e e Weather: The instantaneous state of the atmosphere and its short-term variability. ensible heat: he energy contained in molecules as a result of Sensible heat: The energy contained in molecules as a result of their random kinetic energy (or motion). In other words the energy you can feel as heat. Thermal conduction: The transfer of sensible heat through materials or gases that are in contact as a result of the collision of hot molecules with cool molecules. Note no transfer of mass is required. Thermal convection and advection: The transfer of sensible heat y the movement (or exchange) of mass Convection usually by the movement (or exchange) of mass. Convection usually refers to vertical movement and advection to horizontal movement. Our motivation: Recall: The energy budget of solar and planetary radiation is in balance in total, but ot as a function of latitude not as a function of latitude.
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The imbalance requires energy flow from tropics poles to poles… One possible way for the atmosphere to accomplish this is through its General Circulation. If winds carry warm air pole-ward and cool air to the tropics (on average), there will be a net flow of energy (as sensible heat) like that ustrated above illustrated above. Let’s see how. .. Air, like all bodies, are subject to the Laws of Motion. ,, j Things at rest will tend to remain at rest. To move an object at rest or change the speed or irection of an object a force must be applied direction of an object, a force must be applied.
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Lecture11_Atm_Circulation (1) - EAS 1600 Introduction to...

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