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Psych 350 - Chapter 3 Notes

Psych 350 - Chapter 3 Notes - 1 Piaget's Theory of...

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1. Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development o Based on stages o Cognitive-developmental approach - cognition changes with age o Mental structure - a person who thinks with in a particular stage in one aspect of life should think within that stage in all other aspects of life o Maturation is the driving force behind development from one stage to the next o Use of schemes - structures for organizing and interpreting information Assimilation - new information is altered to fit an existing scheme Accommodation - changing the scheme to adapt to the new information o Piaget's Stages 0-2 Sensorimotor 1. Learn to coordinate the activities of the senses with motor activities 2-7 Preocperational Capable of symbolic representation such as in language but limited ability to use mental operations 7-11 Concrete operations Capable of using mental operations, but only in concrete, immediate experience; difficulty thinking hypothetically More capable of understanding the world. Do have difficulty in transferring their reasoning to situations and problems that require them to think systematically about possibilities and hypotheses. 11-15/20 Formal Operations Capable of thinking logically and abstractly, capable of formulating hypotheses and testing them systematically; thinking is more complex, and can think about thinking (metacognition). Children given the pendulum problem figure out that it's the length of the string that determines how fast the pendulum swings. Hypothetical-deductive reasoning o Abstract Thinking - adolescents become capable of abstract thinking whereas children need to know what A & B are to know if they are equal to C. o Complex Thinking - Formal operationals are capable of complex thinking Includes metaphors since they have more than one meaning: the concrete and a more subtle meaning Sarcasm - double meaning o Metagcognition: Thinking about thinking Enables adolescents to learn and solve problems more efficiently Develops first in adolescents but continues to develop in emerging adults and beyond o Limitations of Piaget's Theory Individual Differences in Formal Operations 1. Assumes that everyone applies the thinking level that they're at to all aspects of their lives which isn't true, that level may not be needed for all decisions 2. Piaget assumes that people proceed through the same stages at the same ages
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3. Experience and education plays a role in development of formal operations 4. It requires a lot of cognitive effort/energy to think in formal operations all the time Culture and Formal Operations 1.
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Psych 350 - Chapter 3 Notes - 1 Piaget's Theory of...

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