Psych 350 - Chapter 4 Notes

Psych 350 - Chapter 4 Notes - 1. What are cultural beliefs?...

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1. What are cultural beliefs? o Cultural beliefs are the commonly held norms and moral standards of a culture, the standards of right and wrong that set expectations for behavior o Symbolic inheritance - set of ideas and understandings both implicit and explicit about persons, society, nature and divinity which root the cultural beliefs Includes beliefs about the ultimate meaning of human life Place of an individual's life Can be religious May be political o Includes the roles that are appropriate for particular persons o Gender roles - all cultures have them, beliefs about the kinds of work, appearance, and other aspects of behavior that distinguish women from men o Cultures may also have age-related roles, social status roles o The set of beliefs that rules what's right and wrong for raising children, adolescents and emerging adults is especially important. o Socialization - process by which people acquire the behaviors and beliefs of the culture they live in. results in: Self-regulation - the capacity for exercising self-control in order to restrain one's impulses and comply with social norms. Includes the development of a conscience. Role preparation - preparation of occupational roles, gender roles, and roles in institutions such as marriage and parenthood Sources of meaning - indicate what is important, what is to be valued, and what is to be lived for o The three outcomes of socialization are shared by all cultures o Cultural Values: Individualism and Collectivism Although all cultures share similar socialization outcomes, cultures differ widely in the socialization values People in the west tend to be more individualistic and people in the east tend to be more collectivistic Collectivistic cultures promote the development of an interdependent self- people place a strong value on cooperation, mutual support, harmonious social relations and contributions to the group Individualistic cultures promote the development of an independent self such that people place a strong value on independence, individual freedoms, and individual achievements Belief systems are not "pure" but a mixture of the two belief systems. Western cultures have elements of collectivism and vice versa Individualism and collectivism describe overall tendencies for the values of cultures as a whole but individual differences exist in every culture Diversity also exists within individuals. Most people are not purely individualistic or purely collectivistic in their beliefs and behavior but have some combination of the two tendencies. o Broad and Narrow Socialization
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Broad socialization - favor individualism. Encourage individual uniqueness, independence, and self-expression. Usually in the west Narrow socialization - favor collectivism. Learn values of obedience and conformity. Tend to focus on the family and community and often include hierarchies of authority based on age, gender, and other characteristics. Usually
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Psych 350 - Chapter 4 Notes - 1. What are cultural beliefs?...

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