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week 1 lecture notes

week 1 lecture notes - What is Critical Thinking correctly...

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What is Critical Thinking? correctly evaluating arguments composing good arguments What is an argument? - premises: reasons that provide support conclusion: the belief being supported An example of an argument: If Sally is currently in this classroom, she is enrolled in PHI 171. Sally is currently in this classroom. Therefore, Sally is enrolled in PHI 171. Note: the premises and conclusion are numbered, the premises are stated before the conclusion, and the conclusion is marked by ʻ Therefore ʼ . Also: the order of the premises is not important and arguments won ʼ t often be presenting in this form in typical writing. Statements vs. Questions, Commands and Instructions statements make claims that can be true or false questions, commands and instructions are not true or false claims Note: ʻ Who is to say...? ʼ isn ʼ t an argument or a premise of an argument (although it is very commonly tried to use as a premise). Statements vs. Sentences: one sentence can contain multiple statements (e.g.: Alice: “Sally and Fred are dating, but Sally is thinking of breaking up with the clueless Fred.”) multiple sentences might only contain one statement (e.g.: Betty, muttering to herself: “Who ʼ s that? Is that Fred flirting with another girl while he is dating Sally?” Betty, yelling: “Hey Fred! Are you flirting yet again?” Betty, with sarcastic glee: “Oh, did I scare that other girl away?” Betty, scolding: “Shame on you, Fred. You shouldn ʼ t be flirting with anyone except Sally.”)
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Finding arguments: look for an attempt to convince find the conclusion find the premises Indicator words: Conclusion Indicator Words: so in short therefore we can show that thus in conclusion hence as a result consequently for these reasons accordingly in fact proves that the point is that it follows that as a consequence we infer that demonstrates that implies that so we see that means that is evidence that entails that indicates that it is likely that suggests that it is clear that
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