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Week 2 lecture notes

Week 2 lecture notes - Cavender Kahanes response to...

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Cavender & Kahane ʼ s response to Relativism: Good reasoning is objective and universal - “The way the world works does not differ depending on the race or sex of those trying to discover the way the world works!” Rather, people can reason poorly (and create or contribute to social inequalities and other injustices) due to: - self-interest - prejudice - narrow-mindedness Kinds of Background Beliefs: Matters of Fact vs. Values/Norms Example: The death penalty is legal in several states. The death penalty should be legal in several states. Are either of these statements true? How do we know/ how can we find out? Matters of fact and values typically have different justifications. In this case, the matter of fact is supported by government records, and the value judgment can be supported by appeal to moral principles.
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Review: 1. What are enthymemes and why do they occur? 2. How do arguments and explanations differ? 3. What are the two parts of an explanation? 4. What is a complex/linked argument? 5. What are the 3 conditions of cogent reasoning? 6. What is fallacious reasoning? Note: - Reasoning correctly is not the same as getting a true conclusion - It is possible to reason correctly and get a false conclusion - It is possible to reason fallaciously and get a true conclusion - However, the most likely way to be right is to reason correctly!
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