week 3 lecture notes

week 3 lecture notes - Arguing about Arguments(Challenging...

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Arguing about Arguments (Challenging Arg ʼ ts) 1. Counter Arguments - an argument whose conclusion opposes the previous argument ʼ s conclusion - doesn ʼ t show that the original argument has an improper form or false premises - instead, tries to show that the conclusion is false (by supporting an opposing conclusion) 2. Refutation Arguments - arguments that show that the original argument has an improper form or at least one false premise Example: 1. If you walk to the store, you will get a latte. 2. You did not get a latte. 3. Therefore, you did not walk to the store. Counter argument: 1. I saw you at the store and you said you walked there. 2. You are always honest. 3. Therefore, you walked to the store. Refutation argument: 1. The store is out of lattes. 2. If the store is out of lattes then you cannot get one. 3. Therefore, it is false that if you walk to the store, you will get a latte.
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Fallacies (Unwarranted Inferences or Unwarranted Assumptions) Fallacious reasoning: - accepting premises that should be doubted - neglecting relevant evidence - drawing conclusions not suf±ciently supported by evidence Non Sequitur - an argument with irrelevant premises (even if the premises were true, they wouldn ʼ t provide support for the conclusion) Example: 1. Many people like candy. 2. Many people like cats. 3. Therefore, many people like going to the movies.
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- accepting a conclusion because it is popular (believed by many people) 1. Most people approve or believe S. 2. Therefore, S is true. Example: “50 Million Cigarette Smokers Can ʼ t Be Wrong” (satirizing 1920s Broadway song “50 Million Frenchmen Can ʼ t Be Wrong” - about censorship and prohibition) Appeal to Novelty or Tradition -accepting a belief based on the length of time it has been believed 1. S has been believed by people for a short/long time. 2. Therefore, S is true.
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This note was uploaded on 02/15/2012 for the course PHI 191 taught by Professor Dunno during the Fall '08 term at Syracuse.

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week 3 lecture notes - Arguing about Arguments(Challenging...

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