solut14c - CHAPTER FOURTEEN COVALENT BONDING ORBITALS The...

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412 CHAPTER FOURTEEN COVALENT BONDING: ORBITALS The Localized Electron Model and Hybrid Orbitals 9. H 2 O has 2(1) + 6 = 8 valence electrons. H 2 O has a tetrahedral arrangement of the electron pairs about the O atom which requires sp 3 hybridization. Two of the four sp 3 hybrid orbitals are used to form bonds to the two hydrogen atoms and the other two sp 3 hybrid orbitals hold the two lone pairs on oxygen. The two O - H bonds are formed from overlap of the sp 3 hybrid orbitals from oxygen with the 1s atomic orbitals from the hydrogen atoms. Each O-H covalent bond is called a sigma ( σ ) bond since the shared electron pair in each bond is centered in an area on a line running between the two atoms. 10. H 2 CO has 2(1) + 4 + 6 = 12 valence electrons. The central carbon atom has a trigonal planar arrangement of the electron pairs which requires sp 2 hybridization. The two C - H sigma bonds are formed from overlap of the sp 2 hybrid orbitals from carbon with the hydrogen 1s atomic orbitals. The double bond between carbon and oxygen consists of one σ and one π bond. The oxygen atom, like the carbon atom, also has a trigonal planar arrangement of the electrons which requires sp 2 hybridization. The σ bond in the double bond is formed from overlap of a carbon sp 2 hybrid orbital with an oxygen sp 2 hybrid orbital. The π bond in the double bond is formed from overlap of the unhybridized p atomic orbitals. Carbon and oxygen each have one unhybridized p atomic orbital which are parallel to each other. When two parallel p atomic orbitals overlap, a π bond results where the shared electron pair occupies the space above and below a line joining the atoms in the bond. O H H C H H O
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CHAPTER 14 COVALENT BONDING: ORBITALS 413 H C C H C 2 H 2 has 2(4) + 2(1) = 10 valence electrons. Each carbon atom in C 2 H 2 is sp hybridized since each carbon atom is surrounded by two effective pairs of electrons, i.e., each carbon atom has a linear arrangement of the electrons. Since each carbon atom is sp hybridized, then each carbon atom has two unhybridized p atomic orbitals. The two C - H sigma bonds are formed from overlap of carbon sp hybrid orbitals with hydrogen 1s atomic orbitals. The triple bond is composed of one σ bond and two π bonds. The sigma bond between to the carbon atoms is formed from overlap of sp hybrid orbitals from each carbon atom.
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