Simulation_Lab4 - Simulation Lab #4: Design of Muscle...

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Simulation Lab #4: Design of Muscle Coordination Patterns to Enable FES-Induced Pedaling Professor B.J. Fregly Mechanics of the Human Locomotor System EML 5595 - Fall 2010 Laboratory Developers: Elizabeth Chumanov and Darryl Thelen, Neuromuscular Biomechanics Lab, University of Wisconsin-Madison I. Introduction In this simulation lab, you will explore how to design muscle stimulation patterns that would enable a paralyzed individual to pedal a stationary bicycle. II. Objectives The purpose of this lab is to introduce users to the potential of using dynamic musculoskeletal models to design man-machine systems that can be used to promote or enhance human movement. By completing this simulation lab, you should: Become familiar with the use of OpenSim to conduct dynamic simulations of movement Discover how muscles need to be coordinated to enable purposeful movement Consider how modeling can be used in the design of assistive devices for the disabled III. Deliverables Please turn in a written report (hard copy) using the report template Simulate_Lab4_report.rtf. IV. Background: Dynamic Simulation of Movement Dynamic models of the musculoskeletal system can be used to predict movement patterns and tissue loading that would result from a set of muscle excitation patterns. Such models can be used to address basic science questions regarding the motor control of human movement, to consider the limits of human performance, and to evaluate intervention strategies in rehabilitation and orthopedics. A primary strength of modeling is the ability to conduct virtual ‘what-if’ studies in which the musculoskeletal system or neuromuscular control can be altered and the resulting effect on movement predicted. Thus, in designing devices to enhance or supplement human movement, modeling can provide a powerful complement to human subject testing, allowing for many more scenarios to be considered and safely tested. A major challenge in using dynamic models to simulate movement is in deriving mathematical equations that adequately capture the complexities of the neuromusculoskeletal system. From an engineering perspective, movement involves the coordination of a large number of non-linear actuators (muscles) driving a high degree of freedom machine (skeleton) using a combination of local (reflexive) and central (CNS) control. Many aspects of the human neuromusculoskeletal
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system remain incompletely understood and are hence difficult to describe mathematically. However, our knowledge of the system and ability to describe it using computational models is improving constantly to the point that models are now able to address some important research and clinical questions. In this study, you will be combining models of muscle activation dynamics, muscle contraction dynamics, musculoskeletal geometry, and skeletal dynamics in a single model of the lower limb (Fig. 1). Inputs to the model are muscle excitations. Model outputs are the positions and velocities of the body segments. In generating a simulation, you
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Simulation_Lab4 - Simulation Lab #4: Design of Muscle...

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