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Nuclear_reprogramming_in_cells

Nuclear_reprogramming_in_cells - Nuclear Reprogramming in...

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DOI: 10.1126/science.1160810 , 1811 (2008); 322 Science et al. J. B. Gurdon, Nuclear Reprogramming in Cells www.sciencemag.org (this information is current as of March 12, 2009 ): The following resources related to this article are available online at http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/322/5909/1811 version of this article at: including high-resolution figures, can be found in the online Updated information and services, http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/322/5909/1811#otherarticles , 14 of which can be accessed for free: cites 41 articles This article http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/collection/development Development : subject collections This article appears in the following http://www.sciencemag.org/about/permissions.dtl in whole or in part can be found at: this article permission to reproduce of this article or about obtaining reprints Information about obtaining registered trademark of AAAS. is a Science 2008 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science; all rights reserved. The title Copyright American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1200 New York Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20005. (print ISSN 0036-8075; online ISSN 1095-9203) is published weekly, except the last week in December, by the Science on March 12, 2009 www.sciencemag.org Downloaded from
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Nuclear Reprogramming in Cells J. B. Gurdon 1 and D. A. Melton 2 Nuclear reprogramming describes a switch in gene expression of one kind of cell to that of another unrelated cell type. Early studies in frog cloning provided some of the first experimental evidence for reprogramming. Subsequent procedures included mammalian somatic cell nuclear transfer, cell fusion, induction of pluripotency by ectopic gene expression, and direct reprogramming. Through these methods it becomes possible to derive one kind of specialized cell (such as a brain cell) from another, more accessible, tissue (such as skin) in the same individual. This has potential applications for cell replacement without the immunosuppression treatments that are required when cells are transferred between genetically different individuals. This article provides some background to this field, a discussion of mechanisms and efficiency, and comments on prospects for future nuclear reprogramming research. A s a fertilized egg develops into an adult organism, specialized cells are formed by a one-way process, and they become increasingly, and normally irreversibly, com- mitted to their fate. A skin cell does not naturally turn into, or give rise to, a brain cell, nor does an intestine cell generate a heart cell. Nevertheless, there are certain experimental procedures that enable just these kinds of changes to take place. They entail nuclear reprogramming, a term that describes a switch in nuclear gene expression of one kind of cell to that of an embryo or other cell type. This process is of interest for three reasons.
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