120112a-HIstoryR

120112a-HIstoryR - 1/19/12! Oceanography GLG 244 Spring,...

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Unformatted text preview: 1/19/12! Oceanography GLG 244 Spring, 2012 HISTORY OF OCEANOGRAPHY !! Early humans - 500 B.C. !! 500 B.C. - 500 A.D. !! 500 - 1500 (Dark Ages) !! 1450 - 1550 European explorers !! 1550 - 1650 British explorers !! Scientists, Navigation !! Modern Oceanography !! 1500 1500 - 500 B.C. !! PHOENICIANS - Africa; England !! EGYPTIANS - Mediterranean; Red Sea !! ARAB TRADERS- Indian Ocean !! POLYNESIANS - Pacific Ocean Trade and War Stayed close to shore 500 B.C. - 500 A.D. !! GREEKS –! Pytheas Germany –! Alexander Persian Gulf –! Aristotle water cycle –! Eratosthenes Earth circumferance –! Posidonius ocean depth (1800 m = 1 mile) –! Pliny the Elder tides and moon –! Ptolemy world map 500 - 1500 (Dark Ages) !! VIKINGS !! ARABS !! CHINESE North Atlantic seasonal winds, currents huge ships; compass 1! 1/19/12! Early Scientists !! Kepler !! Galilei !! Newton !! Halley (1571-1630) (1564-1642) (1642-1727) (1656-1742) Celestial navigation Tides Magnetic variation 2! 1/19/12! James Cook (1728-1779) HMS Endeavour http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Cook Darwin Beagle Challenger (1872-1876 Challenger Expedition 1872-1876 st major scientific venture !! 1 !! biology - life at all depths !! chemistry - constancy of composition !! geology - bathymetry; sediments; !! physical - currents from winds Herodotus (ca 450 BCE)! Where is …. ?! 3! 1/19/12! Navigation !! !! Navigation Direction Polaris, compass !! Latitude (N-S) angle of sun at noon !! !! Longitude (E-W) –! ships logs a real problem Direction Polaris, compass Latitude (N-S) angle of sun at noon EAST - WEST ?? When the sun is directly overhead in Oxford, Ohio, it has just risen in California, and it is not yet risen in Japan. If we know what time it is in Oxford AND we know when the sun is directly overhead where we actually are, - - - then we can estimate how far to the west or east we are from Oxford. GREENWICH, ENGLAND Navigation !! !! !! Direction Polaris, compass Latitude (N-S) angle of sun at noon Longitude (E-W) a real problem –! ships logs –! Time of noon (or sunrise, sunset) –! pendulum clocks don t work at sea 4! 1/19/12! Navigation Direction Polaris, compass !! Latitude (N-S) angle of sun at noon !! Early United States !! Benjamin Franklin Gulf Stream Longitude (E-W) a real problem –! ships logs –! Time of noon (or sunrise, sunset) –! pendulum clocks don t work at sea !! John Harrison (1761) - chronometer –! James Cook (Pacific Ocean) –! Mason - Dixon surveying company !! The Last 100 Years Early United States Benjamin Franklin !! Nathaniel Bowditch !! Thomas Jefferson !! Miami University (1809) !! Matthew F. Maury text !! Gulf Stream navigation text oceanic agency (NOAA) !! !! !! SCUBA (Jacques Cousteau) Satellites (Sputnik - 1957) !! Deep-sea research vessels (Trieste, ALVIN) !! Glomar Challenger; Glomar Explorer ONR, NSF, AEC, CGS, NOAA, IDOE, DSDP, WCRP, WOCE, TOGA, RIDGE, IGY, . . . . !! currents, bathymetry, Echo-sounding (Meteor - 1925) WHOI (1927); SIO; . . . !! 5! 1/19/12! OCEAN BUOYS! Nome! Dutch Harbour! Dutch Harbour Buoy! Dutch Harbour Buoy! 6! 1/19/12! Nome! The Coast Guard Cutter Healy approaches the Russianflagged tanker Renda while breaking ice around the vessel 97 miles south of Nome, Alaska, Jan. 10, 2012. The two vessels departed Dutch Harbor for Nome on Jan. 3, 2012 Observations (facts) Patterns Synthesis Hypotheses or Theory Observations (facts) Patterns Synthesis Science, Pseudoscience, Superstition Hypotheses or Theory (explanation grounded in data and patterns of data) 7! 1/19/12! What is the data of this image? What patterns do you see in this image? !"#$"%&'"()*+,"-.& •! /,.01"23&4"%,"(2&563& 6757&")&789:;97<&=>& '?/& •! 57&-@&1.A)*& •! 5:&-@&B(C@&=C()D",D =(#%E.&F?GH& 8:& @0%JEC@& 8I& @0%JEC@& 8! 1/19/12! Earthquakes and their depths within the Earth @0%JEC@& What is the data of this image? What patterns do you see in this image? Earthquakes and their depths within the Earth :6& Observations (facts) Observations (facts) Patterns Patterns Synthesis Synthesis Hypotheses or Theory Hypotheses or Theory (explanation grounded in data and patterns of data) 9! 1/19/12! Observations (facts) Patterns Synthesis Hypotheses or Theory (explanation grounded in data and patterns of data) Pat Robertson, Christian Broadcast Network @0%JEC@& @0%JEC@& 10! ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/15/2012 for the course GLG 244 taught by Professor Sikorski during the Spring '05 term at Miami University.

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