Overview_Moran_and_Geary

Overview_Moran_and_Geary - Spatial Autocorrelation Moran's...

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1 © Arthur J. Lembo, Jr. Salisbury University Spatial Autocorrelation Moran’s I Geary’s C © Arthur J. Lembo, Jr. Salisbury University Spatial Autocorrelation • First law of geography: “everything is related to everything else, but near things are more related than distant things” – Waldo Tobler • Many geographers would say “I don’t understand spatial autocorrelation” Actually, they don’t understand the mechanics, they do understand the concept.
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2 © Arthur J. Lembo, Jr. Salisbury University Spatial Autocorrelation • Spatial Autocorrelation – correlation of a variable with itself through space. – If there is any systematic pattern in the spatial distribution of a variable, it is said to be spatially autocorrelated – If nearby or neighboring areas are more alike, this is positive spatial autocorrelation Negative autocorrelation describes patterns in which neighboring areas are unlike – Random patterns exhibit no spatial autocorrelation © Arthur J. Lembo, Jr. Salisbury University Why spatial autocorrelation is important • Most statistics are based on the assumption that the values of observations in each sample are independent of one another • Positive spatial autocorrelation may violate this, if the samples were taken from nearby areas • Goals of spatial autocorrelation – Measure the strength of spatial autocorrelation in a map – test the assumption of independence or randomness
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3 © Arthur J. Lembo, Jr.
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Overview_Moran_and_Geary - Spatial Autocorrelation Moran's...

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