Spatial_Stats_x - Non-technical Overview of Geospatial...

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Unformatted text preview: Non-technical Overview of Geospatial Statistical Methods GIS/Mapping and Census Data Second Annual Census Workshop Series Workshop 3: Spatial Statistics, Spatial Research & Confidential Census Data New York Census Research Data Center (CRDC) Baruch College, CUNY, May 8, 2008 A Survey of Topics 1. Points (Events) vs. Polygons (Areal Units) 2. Software Packages 3. Methods of Point Pattern Analysis 1. Centrographic description 2. Distance analysis 3. Spatial clusters 4. Methods of Spatial Data Analysis 1. Thematic mapping vs. exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA) 2. Spatial autocorrelation: how do we know if it is present and, if it is, why do we care? 3. Making neighbors: spatial weights 5. Spatial Regression Models 1. Spatial error vs. spatial lag 2. Spatial heterogeneity vs. spatial dependence 6. Spatial Interpolation 7. Space/Time Dependence 8. Spatial mixed and spatial generalized linear models Atlanta metro region with locations of selected homicides Where to Look for Spatial Analytic Tools ESRI home page, with links to resources for digital maps, data sets, utilities, courses, etc. http://www.esri.com/ CrimeStat III: A Spatial Statistics Program for the Analysis of Crime Incident Locations software, manual, and sample data http://www.icpsr.umich.edu/NACJD/crimestat.html/ SaTScan v7.0.3 software, manual, and sample data available at http://www.satscan.org GeoDa home site, with links to GeoDa installation, manuals, tutorials, data sets and other supporting materials https://www.geoda.uiuc.edu/ R Spatial Projects: packages (e.g., spdep) to carry out spatial data analysis using the R language http://sal.uiuc.edu/csiss/Rgeo/ SpaceStat: A Program for the Statistical Analysis of Spatial Data , SpaceStat tutorial and instructional manual, all available at http://www.terraseer.com/products_spacestat.php Stata : tools for spatial data analysis (spat* routines) SAS : spatial error covariance structures in mixed and glimmix procedures POINT PATTERN ANALYSIS Using CrimeStat 1. Spatial distribution 1. projected or spherical coordinates 2. polar coordinates 2. Distance analysis 3. Spatial clusters Spatial distribution: spherical or projected coordinate system 1. Mean center 2. Median center 3. Center of minimum distance 4. Standard deviation of X and Y coordinates 5. Standard distance deviation 6. Standard deviational ellipse 7. Average density Spatial distribution: polar coordinate system 1. Directional mean and variance 2. Convex Hull Centrographic statistics These statistics originate in the 1920s e.g., Lefever, D. 1926. Measuring geographic concentration by means of the standard deviational ellipse. American Journal of Sociology 32(1): 88-94 They are called centrographic in that they are two-dimensional analogs to the basic statistical moments of the univariate distribution Standard deviational ellipse 1. Because we are working in 2 dimensions, standard distance deviation distorts dispersion by ignoring skew 2. Standard deviational ellipse gives dispersion in 2 dimensions 3. Derived from the bivariate distribution Geometric and Harmonic Means...
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Spatial_Stats_x - Non-technical Overview of Geospatial...

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