L09 - 2/10/12 Reminder!ObservingProjects ReviewonLecture78...

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Unformatted text preview: 2/10/12 Reminder!ObservingProjects ReviewonLecture78 TextbookChap45 Keyconcepts Q.UnderstandingtheoverallproperKesoftheSolarSystem Layout,Orbits,ChemicalcomposiKon...etc Q.Understandingthebasicfeaturesofthenebulartheoryof SolarSystemformaKon Q.UnderstandingthephysicalprocessesfortheplanetformaKon GravitaKonalContracKon,AccreKon,DifferenciaKon FormaKonof theSolarSystem: NebularTheory ItallstartsfromStars... 1)StellarwindsorSNe 2)Interstellardust,condensaKon 3)GiantMolecularCloud 4)GravitaKonalContracKon 5)RotaKonbytheconservaKon oftheangularmomentum 6)Protostellardisk 1 2/10/12 Whathappens intheprotostellar disk? 1)AccreKon >>"Planetesimals" >>"Protoplanets" >>Planets 2)Collisions& FragmentaKon >>asteroids&comets 3)Innerregion:metallic core+rockyenvelop outerregions:icycore+ gaseousenvelop EarthMoonSystem PlanetEarth P=365days d=1AU =5,500kg/m3 6,387km Moon =3,300kg/m3 1,738km Chap5 StudyingEarth:OverallStructure 6mainlayersofEarth 1)MetallicCores(ironcore) 2)Mantle(Silicatemantle) 3)Crust 4)Atmosphere 5)Trophosphere 6)Magnetosphere 2 2/10/12 EarthCores:DifferenciaKon Heaviermaterialstendtosinkwhilelightermaterialslikelyfloat! Asaresult? StudyingMoon:Landscape StudyingMoon:Structure Howthesmoothsurface (Maria)formed? 3 2/10/12 TerrestrialPlanets Mercury,Venus,&Mars KeyConceptsforTerrestrialPlanets RecallthecondiKonsintheearlyenvironment! 1)Oncealloftherockyplanetswereveryhot& mostlymolten(plasKclikestate) :differenciaKon 2)Size&DistancefromtheSunwerethecrucial forthedifferencesbetweentherockyplanets 3)Rememberyourreferenceplanet!:Earth Mercury BasicInformaKon P=88days,withahighlyeccentricorbit 3:2spinorbitresonance R=2400km d=0.4AU =5400kg/m3 T~400C(~752F)ondayKmeside ~170Connightside 4 2/10/12 Mariner10 1973,Nov Mercury FirstLook: Strikinglysimilarsurfacefeaturesto theMoon Basins,craters,ridges,lunarlikehighlands andplains 1stPhototakenbyMariner10 Messenger 2004,Aug Mercury SecondLook: Strikinglydifferentfrom theMoon! Bright&SmoothHollows Messengerrevealedfloodvolcanism Mercury Volcanic&Platetectonicfeatures 5 2/10/12 Mercury DespiteofrelaKvelyslowrotaKon(59days),Mercuryhassignificant magneKcfield. MercuryProperKesSummary SimilartotheMoon: 1)ImpactCraters 2)Noatmosphere DifferentfromtheMoon: 1)Heavilycrateredsurface,evenmorethantheMoon 2)Smallsize+highdensityimplyingadominantironcore 3)Volcanic&platetectonicacKviKes 4)HighcontentsofradioacKvematerials(i.e.Potassium) 5)StrongmagneKcfield 6)3:2spinorbitresonance Venus BasicInformaKon P=225days,almostcircularorbit retrogradespinin243days R=6,100km d=0.7AU =5,250kg/m3 <T>~460C CO2atmosphere,90Kmes denserthanEarthAtm. 6 2/10/12 Venus Galileoin1609wasthefirst mantolookatVenusthrough thetelescope Whathesawwasthefeatureless cloudsofVenus ThemodernobservaKonsare nothingbeserthanGalileo's! Mariner2 1962,Dec VenusTopography Lowerplains&Volcanoes withnosignsofplatetectonics Venus ChainsofVolcanos ImpactCrater DistortedCrust LavaFlows 7 2/10/12 VenusProperKesSummary WellitturnedoutthatItisnotEarthlike! Rotateveryslowly(240days)andbackwarddirecKon Nomoons Veryfewsmallimpactcratersmainlyduetothickatmosphere Twomainsurfacefeatures:lavaplains&volcanoes,noplate tectonics VeryweakmagneKcfield Mars,TheRedPlanet BasicInformaKon P=690days R=3500km d=1.5AU =3900kg/m3 T=27C~87C 2000 1996 1898 2000 1938 8 2/10/12 Mars,Topography SouthernHemisphere ancientcrateredhighlands Sharpequatorialboundary (ValleyMarineris) NorthernHemisphere lavafilledplains Mars,SurfaceFeatures Fe2O3prevalentsoilalsocontainingMg,Na,K,&Cl ImpactCrater LargestVolcano InSolarSystem LargestCanyoninSolarSystem OlympusMons VallesMarineris4000kmlong 9 2/10/12 Mars,Climates&Weathers SouthernPolarIceCap DustStrom WatersonMars? AncientMars possiblywascovered bywaters! Wherethewatergone now? ...thinkaboutthe currentcondiKonsof Mars ...lowpressure& temperature 10 2/10/12 Marsisabout300KmesbiggerthanPhobos! Phobos 22km ~6600km 12km Deimos Strikinglysmoothsurfaceandhighlyirregularshapes Wheredidtheycomefrom?Anyidea? MissiontoMars MarsPathfinder(19961997) Lowcostmission$280milliondollarsfromlaunchingtooperaKon 11 2/10/12 MissiontoMars Spirit&Opportunity(2003current) FindingpastwateracKviKesonMars MarRoverMissionsareincredibly cheapandefficient! Whathappenedsince1990? Viking(1976)vsPathfinder(1997) Viking1Lander1976 Pathfinder1997 600kg Cost=$935millionsin1974 Lander264kg,Rover11kg Cost=$280millionsin1997 12 2/10/12 Jupiterlikeplanets PhysicalProperKes Outerplanetsaregenerallymoremassive,lessdenseandcold comparedtoEarthlikeplanets InternalStructures&ingredients Jupiter Uranus Saturn 13 2/10/12 WeathersdrivenbydifferenKalrotaKon SatellitesofJovianplanets SatellitesofJovianplanets 14 2/10/12 SummaryofSolarSystem 15 2/10/12 TemperatureofSolarSystem 16 ...
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