Lecture 3 - Highly polarized covalent bonds have propensity...

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Unformatted text preview: Highly polarized covalent bonds have propensity to become ionic HF H + + F- LiH Li + + H- Note the sign change, how to determine it? Electronegativity. H 2.1 Li 1.0 F 4.0 Electronegativity Impacts reactivity CF 3 COO CH 3 COO-- Which negative charge is more reactive?-- Because Fluorine is highly electronegative, and they pull back or attract the negative charge through bonds. O O F F F H O O H H H H Inductive effect Inductive effect decreases with distance decreases with distance increases with increase number electronegative atoms. increases with increase number electronegative atoms. C C O O H H H C C O O R R R Inductive effect due to Inductive effect due to electronegativity of electronegativity of neighboring atoms. neighboring atoms. C C O O H H H C C O O F H H C C O O R R R Inductive effect due to Inductive effect due to electronegativity of electronegativity of neighboring atoms. neighboring atoms. C C O O H H H C C O O F F F C C O O F H H C C O O R R R Inductive effect due to Inductive effect due to electronegativity of electronegativity of neighboring atoms. neighboring atoms. C C O O H H H H C O O C C O O H 3 C CH 3 H 3 C Inductive effect due to Inductive effect due to electronegativity of electronegativity of neighboring atoms. neighboring atoms. Methyl groups are electron donating. Formal Charge Formal Charge Whether the atom in the molecule possess Whether the atom in the molecule possess more or less electrons than its valence electron more or less electrons than its valence electron in the element state. in the element state. "Electron counts" and formal charges in NH 4 + and BF 4- 1 4 N H H H H + 7 4 .. B F F F F .. .. .. .. : : : : : : .. Formal Charge Nitric acid .. : .. H O O O N : : .. .. Bond electrons are shared, so only counts half for each bonding atoms. Nitric acid .....
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Lecture 3 - Highly polarized covalent bonds have propensity...

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