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Lecture 8 & 9

Lecture 8 & 9 - Table 2.1 Number of...

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Table 2.1 Number of Constitutionally Isomeric Alkanes CH 4 1 C 8 H 18 18 C 2 H 6 1 C 9 H 20 35 C 3 H 8 1 C 10 H 22 75 C 4 H 10 2 C 15 H 32 4,347 C 5 H 12 3 C 20 H 42 366,319 C 6 H 14 5 C 40 H 82 62,491,178,805,831 C 7 H 16 9
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C 2 H 4 H 2 C=CH 2 planar bond angles: close to 120° bond distances: C—H = 110 pm C=C = 134 pm sp 2 Hybridization e.g. Ethylene
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2 s 2 p 2 p 2 s sp 2 Orbital Hybridization Promote an electron from the 2 s to the 2 p orbital
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sp 2 Orbital Hybridization
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sp 2 Orbital Hybridization 2 sp 2 p σ σ σ σ σ
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sp Hybridization and Bonding in Acetylene
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C 2 H 2 linear bond angles: 180° bond distances: C—H = 1.06 A CC = 1.20 A HC CH sp Hybridization e.g. Acetylene
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sp Orbital Hybridization
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sp Orbital Hybridization σ σ σ σ σ 2 sp 2 p
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π π Bonding in Acetylene Bonding in Acetylene π π Bonding in Acetylene Bonding in Acetylene one one π π bond involves one of the p orbitals on each carbon bond involves one of the p orbitals on each carbon there is a second there is a second π π bond perpendicular to this one bond perpendicular to this one 2 2 sp sp 2 2 p p
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π π Bonding in Acetylene Bonding in Acetylene π π Bonding in Acetylene Bonding in Acetylene 2 2 sp sp 2 2 p p
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π π Bonding in Acetylene Bonding in Acetylene π π Bonding in Acetylene Bonding in Acetylene 2 2 sp sp 2 2 p p
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sp3 sp2 sp Summary : amount (%) of s-character Summary : amount (%) of s-character 1 part s, 3 parts p 1 part s, 3 parts p = 25% s-character, 75% p-character = 25% s-character, 75% p-character 1 part s, 2 parts p 1 part s, 2 parts p = 33.3% s-character, 66.7% p-character = 33.3% s-character, 66.7% p-character 1 part s, 1 parts p 1 part s, 1 parts p = 50% s-character, 50% p-character = 50% s-character, 50% p-character
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sp3 sp2 sp 1+3= 1+3= 4 groups of bonds on each carbon 4 groups of bonds on each carbon 1+2= 1+2= 3 groups of bonds 3 groups of bonds 1+1= 1+1= 2 groups of bonds 2 groups of bonds Summary: identifying the type of hybridization Summary: identifying the type of hybridization R R 2 C=C=CR C=C=CR 2 ? ?
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sp3 sp2 sp Tetrahedron at the sp3 carbon, Tetrahedron at the sp3 carbon, C-C bond can rotate. C-C bond can rotate. Planar Trigonal Planar Trigonal C=C bond cannot rotate C=C bond cannot rotate Linear, Linear, CC bond cannot rotate, CC bond cannot rotate, But is irrelevant. But is irrelevant.
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