point_pattern_analysis_x

point_pattern_analysis_x - University of...

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Unformatted text preview: University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Geographic Information Science Geography 625 Intermediate Geographic Information Science Instructor : Changshan Wu Department of Geography The University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Fall 2006 Week4: Point Pattern Analysis University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Geographic Information Science Outline 1. Revisit IRP/CSR 2. First- and second order effects 3. Introduction to point pattern analysis 4. Describing a point pattern 5. Density-based point pattern measures 6. Distance-based point pattern measures 7. Assessing point patterns statistically University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Geographic Information Science 1. Revisit IRP/CSR Independent random process (IRP) Complete spatial randomness (CSR) 1. Equal probability : any point has equal probability of being in any position or, equivalently, each small sub-area of the map has an equal chance of receiving a point. 2. Independence : the positioning of any point is independent of the positioning of any other point. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 2 4 6 8 10 k n k x x x k n x n k P- - = 1 1 ) , , ( ! ) ( k e k P k - = x n = and University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Geographic Information Science 2. First- and second order effects The independent random process is mathematically elegant and forms a useful starting point for spatial analysis, but its use is often exceedingly naive and unrealistic. If real-world spatial patterns were indeed generated by unconstrained randomness, geography would have little meaning or interest, and most GIS operations would be pointless. IRP/CSR is not realistic University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Geographic Information Science 2. First- and second order effects 1. First-order effect The assumption of Equal probability cannot be satisfied The locations of disease cases tends to cluster in more densely populated areas Plants are always clustered in the areas with favored soils. From (http://www.crimereduction.gov.uk/toolkits/fa020203.htm) University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Geographic Information Science 2. First- and second order effects 2. Second-order effect The assumption of Independence cannot be satisfied New developed residential areas tend to near to existing residential areas Stores of McDonald tend to be far away from each other. University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Geographic Information Science 2. First- and second order effects In a point process the basic properties of the process are set by a single parameter, the probability that any small area will receive a point the intensity of the process. First-order stationary : no variation in its intensity over space....
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point_pattern_analysis_x - University of...

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