Lecture 4-Birth and Infant Physical, Perceptual, and Motor Development

Lecture 4-Birth and Infant Physical, Perceptual, and Motor Development

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Physical, Perceptual and Motor Development Lecture 4 January 23, 2012
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Overview Birth  § Stages of labor § Video The amazing newborn § Physical condition § Reflexes § Senses § States – sleeping and crying Feeding Infancy § Body growth § Motor Development § Perceptual development – a focus on vision § Brain development § Visual brain development § Video 
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Childbirth Stages of labor Stage 1  § Dilation of the cervix (the opening from  uterus to vagina) § Accomplished through contractions of  the uterus Stage 2 § Fetus moves from uterus to vagina (aka  birth canal) § Head “crowns” (head first appears  through the vagina) § Body emerges Stage 3 § Umbilical cord, placenta, expelled
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Childbirth continued Changing notion of traditional childbirth Past:  home delivery, natural family event Current:  hospitals, medical event (U.S.) Holland - 33% give birth at home US – 1% give birth at home Concern about “medicalization” of childbirth § Moms not involved in decision-making process § Treating a natural process like a disease § Pain medication Ø Some form used in 80-95% of births in U.S. Ø Sedative drugs (ie. Demural) - relax mom & relieve pain; cross placental barrier – baby may also be sedated Ø Regional anesthesia - e.g., epidural - may prolong labor; cause trouble with pushing; headaches
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The Cesarean Section (C-section) C-section  - surgical procedure - typically w/ regional  anesthesia - mother awake Why needed?  – medical emergencies, breech positions,  failure to progree Prevalence  - 5.5% of births in 1970; 29% of births in  2004 - most common form of major surgery Concern is that it is done unnecessarily; Doctors too  cautious? Why is high rate a problem? § Major surgery – longer recovery Ø mom is sore, less mobile § Expensive - possible financial strain
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Modern Childbirth - Alternatives Movement to return to natural childbirth Natural or prepared childbirth (e.g., Lamaze) Goal is to make hospital birth as comfortable and  rewarding as possible Typical components: classes, relaxation, coach Benefits: moms report feeling more in control Use of doula (pregnancy couch) and social support Birthing centers Combine intimacy of home birth w/ medical  technology of hospital
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This note was uploaded on 02/15/2012 for the course PSYCH 250 taught by Professor Ward during the Winter '08 term at University of Michigan.

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Lecture 4-Birth and Infant Physical, Perceptual, and Motor Development

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