Lecture 1 - Physical and Cognitive Development in Early...

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Physical and Cognitive Development in Early Childhood 1. Physical growth a. Cephalocaudal principle a.i. 3 yr-olds have large heads and round bodies a.ii. With age, limbs get longer and bodies thin out b. Growth slows b.i. Weight and height double between 2 and 12 years b.ii. (Recall that infants triple weight from 0 to 1) 2. Motor Development a. Gross motor skills—involve large muscle movement a.i. Huge changes between 2 and 6 a.i.1. ie. pump a swing, ride a tricycle, climb a ladder, and throw catch and kick a ball b. Fine motor skills—small, coordinated movements b.i. Takes longer to master b.ii. Requires—muscular control, patience, and judgment b.ii.1. Slowly developing abilities b.ii.2. Examples: pouring juice, buttoning shirts 3. Brain Development a. Three important components in preschool yrs a.i. Myelination—development of a fatty sheath that speeds neuronal transmission a.i.1. Continues into preschool yrs up to adulthood a.i.2. Underlies a.i.2.a. Faster thought processing a.i.2.b. Faster reaction time a.i.3. An ex of how myelin might help in a preschool activity: playing dodge ball. It would be beneficial, b/c faster reaction time. a.ii. Corpus Collosum a.ii.1. Band of neurons that connect the two brain hemispheres a.ii.2. Coordinates processing of two hemispheres a.ii.3. Grows and myelinates rapidly during between yrs 2-6 a.ii.4. Allows children to coordinate functions (ie. coordinate L and R parts of body, better coordination of thoughts, think about what you want to draw, smoother movements, etc.) a.iii. Frontal lobes—slow development a.iii.1. Excecutive function—inhibition (learning how not to run into the street after a ball), planning (making a sandwich for yourself and knowing what you need; building a model airplane), and directing thinking (being able to focus on your play-do even though there are so many noises around you). a.iii.2.
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Lecture 1 - Physical and Cognitive Development in Early...

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