book review part 3 - Media in the Mediated...

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Unformatted text preview: Media in the Mediated Marketplace 1. Deregulation 2. Convergence 3. Media monopolies 4. New technologies, especially digital convergence 5. Globalization of media content 6. Niche audiences and markets 7. Media Concentration  General trends: • Fewer companies will own more media enterprises. • Fewer companies will own businesses in more than one medium. o Newspapers: Gannett o Radio: Clear Channel o TV: News Corp (Fox, SkyTV), Time Warner o Internet: Google, AOL, Microsoft, Apple • Vertical Integration: one company owns subsidiaries at different stages of production process: o Production (film studio) o Distribution (theaters, rental & retailing outlets) o Marketing (toys, clothing, music) • Chain Ownership: one company owns multiple similar outlets within a single medium. o Gannett newspapers o Clear Channel radio stations • Horizontal Integration: Single company owns a variety of different outlets and content providers.  Horizontal Integration: Examples  ­ ­ AOL Time Warner & News Corp • Advantages o Minimizes business risks. o Standardizes media content. o Increases efficiency by eliminating middlemen. • Disadvantages o Threatens media independence. o Reduces diversity. o Standardizes media content. o Appeals to lowest common denominators of public knowledge and taste. o Increases control over news and other content. o Reduces market competition. o Increases advertising rates. o Reduces local access and presence in media. Televised Consumption 1. Advertisers had a specific conceptualization of the female consumer in the time after the second World War. 2. Daytime televisions and broadcaster’s saw their audience as primarily female and their primary goal was to sell this audience to advertisers. 3. NBC’s Home is an example of these concepts and shows how female audiences were addressed, as well as how mass media addresses women today. (Using some of the same approaches) 4. Two Topics to Focus On:  Wall between advertising and editorial (67). (Sometimes called “Chinese” wall.) • The wall between advertising and editorial o Editorial content = news or entertainment o Helps prevent concealed advertising. • Helps prevent conflicts of interest: o Informing the public vs. Maximizing profits • The Wall: Media Independence o = Independence from control by sponsors and advertisers. o News: credibility, impartiality, integrity. o Entertainment: artistic autonomy. • When the Wall Breaks Down o Infomercials o Advertorials o Outserts o Product placement o Economic influence on media content: o Economic censorship of media content.  Advertising and the social construction of gender. • Social Construction of Gender: Consistent and pervasive patterns for portraying men and women imply that male and female traits are “natural and unchangeable” rather than culturally constructed and changeable.  Implication: • It’s “natural” for males to be competitive • It’s “natural” for women to pose for the Male Gaze  Intended Effects • Stereotypes quickly and efficiently establish familiar contexts of meaning. • Beautiful things are appealing. • Appropriate models increase message effectiveness (role ­product congruity).  Unintended Effects • Stereotypes limit social roles. • Predominant emphasis on external beauty. • Objectification can dehumanize. • Heteronormativity can marginalize. 5. Keep These Two Major Questions in Mind:  How does advertising, as a source of revenue, affect the availability (existence and price) of the media?  How does advertising affect the content and quality of the media? Late Modern Consumer Society 1. Transition from material culture to dematerialized culture.  Money: data on stock market.  Work: knowledge, science, expertise.  Goods: brands represent symbolic distinctions.  Information: entertainment, fitness regimes, etc.  Culture: consumer society “saturated with meaning”; status competition. 2. Demassification of consumer culture.  Demassified Culture  Be real  Be authentic  Be creative  Be yourself  Avoid the mass ...
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