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book review part 6 - Keep These Two Major Questions...

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Unformatted text preview: Keep These Two Major Questions in Mind: 1. How does advertising, as a source of revenue, affect the availability (existence and price) of the media? 2. How does advertising affect the content and quality of the media? Two Differing Views: 1. Advertising revenue makes programming possible. Watching ads is the price or work audiences pay for cheap content. 2. Programming benefits advertisers more than it benefits viewers. Types of Media 1. Print and books • Not significant. • Before economy of abundance. • Before continuous ­process production. 2. Print and newspapers • What were the preconditions of the growth of advertising ­funded newspapers? • Printing press (industrialized communication) • Urbanization • Department stores • Cheap paper production • Simply written, sensationalistic stories • Appeal to immigrants and working classes • Joseph Pulitzer • William Randolph Hearst • The Yellow Kid, “yellow journalism” • Rise of the advertising agent: buys space in newspaper and sells it to advertising client for higher price. • Economies of scale, wide readership. • Advertisers begin to exert control over news content (censorship). • Increasingly more opportunities for “display” ads. • Increasingly more openness to “display” ads. • Sectionalization: turn of 20th century (SCA 104). 3. Print and magazines • American Civil War created surplus of goods. • Branded products and continuous ­process production. • Popular serial fiction: England: Charles Dickens • Initially, publishers delivered (high ­priced) magazine to subscribers. • Now, publishers deliver readers to advertisers (SCA 104). • “Trafficking in audiences” • Magazines might be popular among audiences but undesirable for advertisers. Why? 4. Print and trade cards • Pocket billboard. • Left in stores by “drummers.” • A mechanism for branding “parity items”: soap, flour, biscuits, oatmeal, thread. • Advertisers reach consumers directly, without going through retailers: “Don’t you have Quaker Oatmeal?” 5. Radio • Advertisers determine what and where to broadcast (dissemination). • Sponsor ­controlled broadcasts: Maxwell House Hour, Palmolive Hour, soap operas: weak wall between ads & editorial. • Ads: food, drugs, tobacco, soap. • U.S. newspapers bought radio stations to promote themselves. • Censorship based on lowest common denominator? • National hit shows: Amos ‘n’ Andy (SCA 110). 6. Television • Advertisers are still important gatekeepers of media programming. • Broadcasters care about sponsor more than viewer: • TV programs should provide “conducive environment for reception of commercials” (SCA 115). • Advertising rates based on:  Cost ­per ­thousand of viewing audience.  Demographic characteristics of viewing audience. • Result: conservative bias for programming. 7. Internet • Back to a type of interpersonal salesmanship. • Narrower, personalized message targeting. – addressable advertising • Consumer participation and collaboration. – product information – branding and brand meaning ...
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