Psych Notes

Psych Notes - critical thinking: a systematic way of...

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critical thinking : a systematic way of evaluating info in order to reach reasonable conclusions sources of information: authority (credibility), reason, observation elements of critical thinking : 1) differentiating between fact and opinion 2) recognizing and evaluating author bias and rhetoric 3) determining the difference between cause-effect and correlation 4) determining the accuracy and completeness of information presented 5) recognizing logical fallacies and faulty reasoning 6) making judgments and drawing conclusions obstacles to good decision-making : 1) illusory correlation - things seem to go together but don’t (childhood vaccinations and autism); if every time A happens then B happens too, does that mean A causes B? (crime rate and ice cream sales in summer months, taking a knee in football and winning games) 2) correlation vs. causation - just because two events occur together doesn’t mean one causes the other; there are three possibilities: A causes B, B causes A, or some other variable C is at work causing both (depression because of lack of sleep, lack of sleep because of depression, or fam- ily conflicts causing both?) 3) confirmation bias - seeking out evidence that confirms our hypotheses instead of disconfirma- tion (hypothesis: camels are desert animals. where do you look to test? the desert? NO you should look everywhere else BUT the desert) 4) framing the question - how you word a question is critical (condoms have a 95% success rate, condoms have a 5% failure rate) 5) fixation - seeing things the way we are used to see them and not seeing other possibilities 6) availability - judgment based on available memories; we remember things that support our hy- potheses (airplane crashes, winning the lottery), seeing things as more common than they ac- tually are 7) belief perseveration - we cling to beliefs despite evidence to contrary (students who were pro and con on death penalty were both given same set of mixed evidence about the efficacy of the death penalty, both solidified their pre-existing positions) humans have a strong tendency to assign meaning to random events - ESP (having the same dream as your friend) types of research design : 1) Experimental method - controls relevant variables, allows for causal inferences 2) Correlational method - does not allow for causal inferences, suggests variables that are relev- ant and may be causally linked 3) Descriptive method - report demographic or other descriptive data without making inferences process of research : - initial phase of research, in which observations, beliefs, information, and general knowledge lead to a new idea or a different way of thinking about some phenomenon
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- theory: an organized set of concepts that explain some phenomenon - step 2: develop a hypothesis (testable) - step 3: use scientific method to design the study - scientific method: set of procedures used for gathering and interpreting objective information in a way that minimizes error and yields dependable generalizations; goal is to draw conclusions
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Psych Notes - critical thinking: a systematic way of...

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